Marijuana plant growth stages
Cannabis plants go through a series of stages as they grow and mature, and those different stages call for different amounts of light, nutrients, and water.
It’s important to know these stages and how long each lasts to know what the plant needs and when. Knowing where your plants are in their life cycle will dictate when to prune, train, and trellis your plants, and when to harvest.
How long does it take to grow a marijuana plant?
Generally speaking, it takes anywhere from 10-32 weeks, or about 3-8 months, to grow a weed plant from seed. It’ll be quicker if you start with a clone or an autoflower seed.
The biggest variability in how long a marijuana plant takes to grow will happen in the vegetative stage—after the seedling phase and before flower.
If you’re growing indoors, you can force it to flower after only a few weeks when it is small, or after several weeks when it is big. If you’re growing outdoors, you’re at the whim of the seasons and will have to wait until the sun starts to go down in fall for it to flower and then to harvest.
When should you grow marijuana?
If you’re growing outdoors in the Northern Hemisphere, growers usually get their seeds between February and April, and you should start your seeds by the end of April. Some growers will start their seedlings inside in a more controlled environment because seedlings are more delicate, and then put their seeds in the ground outside once they’re a little bigger. If you’re growing clones or autoflowers, you have a grace period of another month or so. Plants usually need to be outside, in the ground, by the end of June.
Harvest happens sometime between September and November. This depends on your local climate, as well as the weather that particular year—one year it could be the end of September, the next, end of October, and growers in the Pacific Northwest will have to pull down their crops earlier than those in Northern California.
If you’re growing weed indoors, you can grow whenever you like. Keep in mind that the outside environment will affect your grow space—you may need to add heaters in the winter or fans and ACs in the summer. Other than that, you can start seeds whenever you like and flip them into flower whenever you like, depending on how big you want the plants.
Important dates for growing outdoors
The Spring Equinox is a good reminder that it’s time to kick off the outdoor growing process and start germinating your seeds.
As the sun reaches up high in the sky, your cannabis will want to as well. Make sure all of your plants are outside by the Summer Solstice.
The weather will start to turn and the sun will begin descending in the sky as your plants fatten up with sweet, sticky buds. It might be tempting, but wait until around the Fall Equinox to start harvesting.
Everything should be cleaned up, dried, and curing well before the Winter Solstice. Now’s a good time to make your own cannabutter, topicals, or tinctures with all that trim from the harvest. Kick your feet up, relax, and hunker down for the cold, it’s been a long growing season!
Notes on phases
We can’t stress enough that the timeframes in the above graphic are ranges of time for the Northern Hemisphere. You’ll need to adjust them based on your specific region and local weather and climate.
Be sure to keep a grow journal to track the progress of your plants. Looking back on your notes will help you learn from mistakes and maximize the quality and quantity of your buds.
Take meticulous notes on when and how you perform each step, as well as what the weather is like. Other notes can include how much water you give plants, at what intervals, and how much nutrients you give them. Pictures will also give you a better sense of how your plants look along the way.
What are a weed plant’s growth stages?
The growth stages of marijuana can be broken down into four primary stages from seed to harvest:
- Germination (3-10 days)
- Seedling (2-3 weeks)
- Vegetative (3-16 weeks)
- Flowering (8-11 weeks)
Seed germination (3-10 days)
The first marijuana plant stage begins with the seed. A cannabis seed should feel hard and dry, and be light- to dark-brown in color. An undeveloped seed is generally squishy and green or white in color and likely won’t germinate.
Once your seed has germinated, or sprouted, it’s ready to be placed in a growing medium, like soil. The tap root will drive down while the stem of the seedling will grow upward.
Two rounded cotyledon leaves will grow out from the stem as the plant unfolds from the protective casing of the seed. These initial leaves are responsible for taking in sunlight needed for the plant to become healthy and stable.
As roots develop, the stalk will rise and you’ll begin to see the first iconic fan leaves grow, at which point your cannabis plant can be considered a seedling.
Seedling stage (2-3 weeks)
When your plant becomes a seedling, you’ll notice it developing more of the traditional cannabis fan leaves. As a sprout, the seed will initially produce leaves with only one ridged blade. Once new growth develops, the leaves will develop more blades (3, 5, 7, etc.). A mature cannabis plant will have between 5 or 7 blades per leaf, but some plants may have more.
Cannabis plants are considered seedlings until they begin to develop leaves with the full number of blades on new fan leaves. A healthy seedling should be a vibrant green color.
Be very careful to not overwater the plant in its seedling stage—its roots are so small, it doesn’t need much water to thrive.
At this stage, the plant is vulnerable to disease and mold. Keep its environment clean and monitor excess moisture. Be sure to give it plenty of light.
Even if growing outdoors, a lot of growers will start their seeds inside under an artificial light to help them through this delicate stage.
If you buy a clone from a grower or breeder it will be a seedling, so you can skip the seed germination phase.
Vegetative stage (3-16 weeks)
The vegetative stage of cannabis is where the plant’s growth truly takes off. At this point, you’ve transplanted your plant into a larger pot and the roots and foliage are developing rapidly. This is also the time to begin topping or training your plants.
Be mindful to increase your watering as the plant develops. When it’s young, your plant will need water close to the stalk, but as it grows the roots will also grow outward, so start watering further away from the stalk in the soil so roots can stretch out and absorb water more efficiently.
Vegetative plants appreciate healthy soil with nutrients. Feed them with a higher level of nitrogen at this stage.
If you need to determine the sex of your plants (to discard the males), they will start showing sex organs a few weeks into the veg stage. It’s imperative to separate males so they don’t pollinate the females.
Flowering stage (8-11 weeks)
The flowering stage is the final stage of growth for a cannabis plant. This is when plants start to develop resinous buds and your hard work will be realized.
Outdoors, flowering occurs naturally when the plant receives less light each day as summer turns into fall. Indoor growers can trigger the flowering cycle by reducing the amount of light marijuana plants receive from 18 to 12 hours a day.
There are a number of changes to consider once plants go from the vegetative stage to the flowering stage:
- Don’t prune when plants are flowering stage, as it can upset their hormones
- Plants should be trellised so buds will be supported as they develop
- Consider giving plants bloom (phosphorus) nutrients
When do buds grow the most?
Buds typically grow the most toward the end of the flowering life stage. You probably won’t notice much budding out at the beginning of flower, and it will slow down toward the end of the cycle, when buds become fully formed.
Once the buds have reached full maturation, it’s time to harvest.
Pat Goggins and Trevor Hennings contributed to this article.
Learn about how long it takes to grow marijuana and all of its life stages, from seed germination to flowering.
The Vegetative Phase Of Cannabis Cultivation
The vegetative phase in cannabis plants’ life cycle is vital as plants use it to prepare for an optimal flowering period. When caring for your plants there are several factors to consider during that stage, such as light cycle, watering, nutrients, and more, so every grower should have a good idea of how to respond to their plants’ needs so they can thrive. Use the guide below to discover the intricacies of the vegetative phase of the cannabis life cycle.
The vegetative phase, colloquially known as the “veg”, begins from the moment seedlings rise to the surface until the beginning of the flowering phase. During the vegetative phase, cannabis plants grow from tiny seedlings to mighty trees. Fan leaves develop, absorbing light for photosynthesis, which provides the plants with required energy.
The stems become thicker, supporting the structure of the plants and protecting them from windy environments. Different strains will exhibit different growth patterns during the vegetative phase. Some plants develop thick stems, others are thinner. Some strains, like autoflowering varieties, will become quite short, spanning between about 30-100cm in height.
Sativa-dominant, photoperiodic strains, however, can reach up to 400cm. Depending on the strain’s genetics, the amount, shape, and size of the leaves will also differ. For example, indica varieties evolved in harsh environments between the Hindu Kush mountain range and desert climates; as a result, they developed a “wide finger” leaf structure as a defence mechanism to retain water and protect buds from the blazing sun. On the other hand, sativa strains develop “narrow finger” leaves, which help them to respire in the tropical and humid environment where they evolved. Let’s check out the fundamentals behind a vigorous and strong vegetative growth phase for cannabis plants.
Fundamentals And Logistics
The vegetative stage should be seen as the foundation on which our beloved buds can flourish. When the plants grow tall, strong, healthy, and resilient, it will provide the buds with an opportunity to maximise their potential and quality. Vegetative growth can be modified in accordance with the physical environment for logistical purposes. The stems can be bent and trained to work with the limitations of smaller indoor settings.
First, let’s address the fundamentals of vegging plants outdoors. One should choose the appropriate strains for the climate in which the cannabis plants will grow. As a rule of thumb, sativa-dominant strains thrive in tropical climates, while indica-dominant strains thrive in dry and hot environments. One can use the Köppen climate classification as a guide to choose the right cannabis variety. Outdoors, we’re dealing with a bunch of insects. Strains which are resilient to pesky pests are ideal. Those strains that develop plenty of trichomes are a good choice because they help control plant temperature, and terpenes act as an insect repellant. One could also use biological insecticides during the veg if necessary.
Depending on the size of the plant, support may be required. Some sativa strains grow like normal-sized trees during the vegetative stage. Even though one doesn’t have spatial limitations outdoors, the branches may snap under their own weight if the plants are too tall. Tying the branches may be a smart move. One could also use topping techniques, which creates more bushy and stable plants.
In most indoor operations, there is limited space for plants to veg. Indoor growers often prefer indica and autoflowering varieties because they’re relatively short. Cannabis plants with classic sativa traits are difficult to grow as they take over the grow space like those plants in Jumanji. Sativa plants can stretch up to 3x their height after they’ve been put into bloom. To control height during the vegetative phase in indoor environments, growers use SOG and ScrOG techniques to train the plants to grow in specific directions. These techniques are quite advanced; novice growers should get a couple harvests under their belt before attempting these methods.
Stage Duration And Light Cycle
Outdoors, one needs to begin the vegetative phase during the ultimate time frame. If one’s planning to vegetate plants for 5 months, they should be planted 5 months before the fall season begins, because that’s around the time photoperiodic cannabis plants start flowering.
For example, if the fall season begins in August, and one’s planning to vegetate the plants for 5 months, the plants should be sown in March. The duration of the vegetative phase greatly depends on the strain and preference. Generally, when growers want massive plants, they’ll leave the plants in veg for a long time; if short plants are desired, they’ll be planted closer to the beginning of fall. Autoflowering strains, which derive from Cannabis ruderalis genetics, have a very short vegetative phase due to their development in cold climates. Therefore, they should be planted during the 2 months with the most hours of sun as this will allow these short and fast-growing plants to thrive.
Indoor plants don’t depend on outdoor seasonal changes to begin flowering, therefore, one can begin the vegetative phase whenever and keep it going for an extended period of time. Just like in outdoor conditions, to produce massive plants, one should keep them in the vegetative phase for a longer time. During the veg, indoor-grown cannabis usually receives 18 hours of light and 6 hours of complete darkness.
There is a general consensus among cannabis growers that the 18-6 light cycle produces best results during the veg. The 18 hours of light signals to the plants that it’s spring and summer time, telling them to increase in size. Indoors, growers can keep the plants in the vegetative phase for a long time by maintaining the 18-6 light cycle.
Mother plants (cannabis plants from which clones are taken) are not allowed to go into the flowering phase, so they’re maintained indefinitely in the vegetative phase. Indoors, autoflowering varieties are often subjected to prolonged light hours spanning between 20-24 hours per day. That’s because autoflowering varieties are not photoperiod-dependent. It’s not possible to manipulate the duration of their vegetative phase because their genetic “veg clock” is set after they rise to the surface.
In The Greenhouse
Greenhouse cannabis gardens use sunlight as a source of energy for the plants, which means that they fall under the “outdoor” category. However, greenhouses provide growers with more control over light duration; additional lamps can be placed to keep the plants in veg longer while special covers can be used to blot out the sun to shorten the period.
Watering During Vegetation
In the beginning of the vegetative phase, one doesn’t need to water the plants often because small plants only absorb trace amounts. It’s not possible to say how often the plants should be watered in detail because water absorption greatly differs between various growing media. One should keep the plants between being underwatered and overwatered, leaning more to the underwatered side. Overwatered plants are almost a lost cause while underwatered plants can be saved by simply replenishing the source. In this case, less is more. The water temperature should be around 20ºC.
Nutrients During Vegetation
Nitrogen! The main ingredient which cannabis plants require during the veg is nitrogen. The N-P-K ratio (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) should be around 2-1-1, however, growers have different preferences and recipes. As a rule of thumb, when the leaves maintain a healthy green colour and don’t fall off, the levels are just right.
Best Grow Room Circumstances For Vegetation
Lighting: The best lights for the indoor vegetation phase are LED and HPS lamps. CFL lights can be used in smaller operations.
Temp: Outdoor plants can handle hotter temperatures up to 38ºC when the roots go deep into the cool ground. The perfect temperature for indoor plants spans between 21-29ºC. During the night, the temperatures should be slightly cooler, between 17-21ºC.
Humidity: During the vegetative phase, cannabis plants can handle higher humidity levels. Around 60% RH is recommended.
pH: The pH levels should be around 6-6.5 for soil-grown cannabis. For hydro, 5.5-5.8 is optimal.
Ventilation: Air circulation is necessary during the veg; both indoor and outdoor growers need to provide the plants with a gentle breeze for them to inhale CO₂, and exhale O₂.
Sex Of Plants
One can determine the sex of cannabis plants during the late stages of the vegetative phase. If pollen sacs are spotted, they’re male plants, which need to be removed if high-quality buds are desired. When the females become pollinated by males, the plants focus their energy on creating seeds rather than THC.
When the males are removed and only females remain, one still needs to inspect the plants for any banana-shaped pollen sacs, which can develop on female plants due to stressful conditions. When detected in time, these pollen sacs need to be surgically removed without letting the pollen escape, as this could ruin the entire crop.
Our beloved cannabis plants grow in size during the vegetative stage. Find out more about the best practices to maintain stable veg growth.