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seed radical

Radicle

Learn about this topic in these articles:

angiosperm embryogenesis

…and the primary root (radicle). The hypophysis will give rise to the radicle and the root cap; the cells of the suspensor will degenerate as the embryo matures.

root anatomy and function

The primary root, or radicle, is the first organ to appear when a seed germinates. It grows downward into the soil, anchoring the seedling. In gymnosperms and dicotyledons (angiosperms with two seed leaves), the radicle becomes a taproot. It grows downward, and secondary roots grow laterally from it to…

…from the embryonic root (radicle), which grows out of the seed after the seed has absorbed water. This is the primary root of a new plant. The tip of the root is covered by a mass of loose cells called the root cap. Just beneath the root cap is…

taproots

…the root from the embryonic radicle. This primary root is a taproot. In plants in which the taproot persists, smaller lateral roots (secondary roots) commonly arise from the taproot and may in turn produce even smaller lateral roots (tertiary roots). This serves to increase the surface area for water and…

Other articles where Radicle is discussed: plant development: Origin of the primary organs: …and the primary root (radicle). The hypophysis will give rise to the radicle and the root cap; the cells of the suspensor will degenerate as the embryo matures.

The hydroxyl radical in plants: from seed to seed

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK * Present address: Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK.
  • 2 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.
  • 3 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK Present address: Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
  • 4 Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.
  • 5 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK Present address: Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan [email protected]
  • PMID: 25294918
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru398

The hydroxyl radical in plants: from seed to seed

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  • Search in NLM Catalog
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Authors

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK * Present address: Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK.
  • 2 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.
  • 3 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK Present address: Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
  • 4 Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.
  • 5 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK Present address: Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan [email protected]
  • PMID: 25294918
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru398

Abstract

The hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) is the most potent yet short-lived of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) radicals. Just as hydrogen peroxide was once considered to be simply a deleterious by-product of oxidative metabolism but is now acknowledged to have signalling roles in plant cells, so evidence is mounting for the hydroxyl radical as being more than merely an agent of destruction. Its oxidative power is harnessed to facilitate germination, growth, stomatal closure, reproduction, the immune response, and adaptation to stress. It features in plant cell death and is a key tool in microbial degradation of plant matter for recycling. Production of the hydroxyl radical in the wall, at the plasma membrane, and intracellularly is facilitated by a range of peroxidases, superoxide dismutases, NADPH oxidases, and transition metal catalysts. The spatio-temporal activity of these must be tightly regulated to target substrates precisely to the site of radical production, both to prevent damage and to accommodate the short half life and diffusive capacity of the hydroxyl radical. Whilst research has focussed mainly on the hydroxyl radical’s mode of action in wall loosening, studies now extend to elucidating which proteins are targets in signalling systems. Despite the difficulties in detecting and manipulating this ROS, there is sufficient evidence now to acknowledge the hydroxyl radical as a potent regulator in plant cell biology.

Keywords: Calcium; germination; hydroxyl radical; peroxide; pollen; spoilage; stress; wall..

The hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) is the most potent yet short-lived of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) radicals. Just as hydrogen peroxide was once considered to be simply a deleterious by-product of oxidative metabolism but is now acknowledged to have signalling roles in plant cells, so evidence is m …

Categories
BLOG

seed radical

Radicle

Learn about this topic in these articles:

angiosperm embryogenesis

…and the primary root (radicle). The hypophysis will give rise to the radicle and the root cap; the cells of the suspensor will degenerate as the embryo matures.

root anatomy and function

The primary root, or radicle, is the first organ to appear when a seed germinates. It grows downward into the soil, anchoring the seedling. In gymnosperms and dicotyledons (angiosperms with two seed leaves), the radicle becomes a taproot. It grows downward, and secondary roots grow laterally from it to…

…from the embryonic root (radicle), which grows out of the seed after the seed has absorbed water. This is the primary root of a new plant. The tip of the root is covered by a mass of loose cells called the root cap. Just beneath the root cap is…

taproots

…the root from the embryonic radicle. This primary root is a taproot. In plants in which the taproot persists, smaller lateral roots (secondary roots) commonly arise from the taproot and may in turn produce even smaller lateral roots (tertiary roots). This serves to increase the surface area for water and…

Other articles where Radicle is discussed: plant development: Origin of the primary organs: …and the primary root (radicle). The hypophysis will give rise to the radicle and the root cap; the cells of the suspensor will degenerate as the embryo matures.

The hydroxyl radical in plants: from seed to seed

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK * Present address: Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK.
  • 2 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.
  • 3 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK Present address: Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
  • 4 Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.
  • 5 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK Present address: Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan [email protected]
  • PMID: 25294918
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru398

The hydroxyl radical in plants: from seed to seed

  • Search in PubMed
  • Search in NLM Catalog
  • Add to Search

Authors

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK * Present address: Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK.
  • 2 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.
  • 3 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK Present address: Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
  • 4 Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.
  • 5 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK Present address: Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan [email protected]
  • PMID: 25294918
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru398

Abstract

The hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) is the most potent yet short-lived of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) radicals. Just as hydrogen peroxide was once considered to be simply a deleterious by-product of oxidative metabolism but is now acknowledged to have signalling roles in plant cells, so evidence is mounting for the hydroxyl radical as being more than merely an agent of destruction. Its oxidative power is harnessed to facilitate germination, growth, stomatal closure, reproduction, the immune response, and adaptation to stress. It features in plant cell death and is a key tool in microbial degradation of plant matter for recycling. Production of the hydroxyl radical in the wall, at the plasma membrane, and intracellularly is facilitated by a range of peroxidases, superoxide dismutases, NADPH oxidases, and transition metal catalysts. The spatio-temporal activity of these must be tightly regulated to target substrates precisely to the site of radical production, both to prevent damage and to accommodate the short half life and diffusive capacity of the hydroxyl radical. Whilst research has focussed mainly on the hydroxyl radical’s mode of action in wall loosening, studies now extend to elucidating which proteins are targets in signalling systems. Despite the difficulties in detecting and manipulating this ROS, there is sufficient evidence now to acknowledge the hydroxyl radical as a potent regulator in plant cell biology.

Keywords: Calcium; germination; hydroxyl radical; peroxide; pollen; spoilage; stress; wall..

The hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) is the most potent yet short-lived of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) radicals. Just as hydrogen peroxide was once considered to be simply a deleterious by-product of oxidative metabolism but is now acknowledged to have signalling roles in plant cells, so evidence is m …