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Pure crystalline

a State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, P. R. China

b University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: +86-431-85262126
Tel: +86-431-85262175

Abstract

Herein, balanced intermixed and pure crystalline phases in N,N′-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (EP-PDI)-based non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) were achieved via selective solvent additives (SAs). Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]] (PTB7) and 7,7′-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5′-hexyl-[2,2′-bithiophen]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (F-DTS) possessing different compatibilities with EP-PDI were selected as model systems to investigate the guideline of SAs selection for different non-fullerene-based systems. According to the solubility parameter difference (Δδ) between EP-PDI and SAs, five different SAs were divided into two types: (I) strong intermolecular interactions with EP-PDI molecules (with Δδ values less than 5 MPa 1/2 ), (II) weak intermolecular interactions with EP-PDI molecules (with large Δδ values). For PTB7:EP-PDI system with large and obvious phase separation, the introduction of type (II) SAs provided extra interactions with EP-PDI molecules, thus effectively reducing EP-PDI aggregate domains and increasing intermixed fractions. The incorporation of type (II) SAs resulted in a greater yield of dissociated polarons, and the final device efficiency increased from 0.02% to 1.65%. On the contrary, for finely mixed F-DTS:EP-PDI systems, type (I) SAs were considerably more effective because of the fact that the required pure crystalline phases were readily induced by the unfavorable interactions. The charge transport pathways optimized by type (I) SAs improved device efficiency from 0.18% to 2.82%. Hence, by processing selective SAs, the fraction of intermixed and pure crystalline phases for PDI-based non-fullerene OSCs can be well regulated; therefore, the final performance for both systems can be significantly improved.

Herein, balanced intermixed and pure crystalline phases in N,N′-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (EP-PDI)-based non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) were achieved via selective solvent additives (SAs). Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-

Quantitation of crystalline and amorphous forms of anhydrous neotame using 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy

Affiliation

  • 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, USA.
  • PMID: 16258988
  • DOI: 10.1002/jps.20469

Quantitation of crystalline and amorphous forms of anhydrous neotame using 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy

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Authors

Affiliation

  • 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, USA.
  • PMID: 16258988
  • DOI: 10.1002/jps.20469

Abstract

Although most drugs are formulated in the crystalline state, amorphous or other crystalline forms are often generated during the formulation process. The presence of other forms can dramatically affect the physical and chemical stability of the drug. The identification and quantitation of different forms of a drug is a significant analytical challenge, especially in a formulated product. The ability of solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy with cross polarization (CP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) to quantify the amounts of three of the multiple crystalline and amorphous forms of the artificial sweetener neotame is described. It was possible to quantify, in a mixture of two anhydrous polymorphic forms of neotame, the amount of each polymorph within 1-2%. In mixtures of amorphous and crystalline forms of neotame, the amorphous content could be determined within 5%. It was found that the crystalline standards that were used to prepare the mixtures were not pure crystalline forms, but rather a mixture of crystalline and amorphous forms. The effect of amorphous content in the crystalline standards on the overall quantitation of the two crystalline polymorphic forms is discussed. The importance of differences in relaxation parameters and CP efficiencies on quantifying mixtures of different forms using solid-state NMR spectroscopy is also addressed.

Although most drugs are formulated in the crystalline state, amorphous or other crystalline forms are often generated during the formulation process. The presence of other forms can dramatically affect the physical and chemical stability of the drug. The identification and quantitation of different …