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Make Your Buds Sparkle With More Trichomes

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What Are Trichomes?

When growers say they want to make cannabis buds “sparkle” with trichomes, what are they talking about? The answer is: that ‘frosty’ quality that makes bud look like it might be too potent. As cannabis plants mature in the flowering stage, their buds become covered with what looks almost like a dusting of glitter or frost, which can improve their overall appearance.

When you look really closely at cannabis buds, you can see what looks like thousands of tiny translucent mushrooms. In nature, these glandular stalked trichomes are believed to be used by the plant to repel insects, protect the buds from UV damage and produce essential oils that have various effects.

The “glitter” that grows on buds is called trichomes and they contain THC and other cannabinoids. They give cannabis its unique mental and body effects.

Trichomes that are long and thin without a “head” are actually cystolithic hairs and do not contain significant levels of cannabinoids.

Many other types of plants besides cannabis produce trichomes, including many aromatic herbs like mint and rosemary. These plants produce essential oils in their trichomes which are used to deter insects and protect the plants from other stressors, just like cannabis plants!

Several different types of flowers, as well as many aromatic herbs like mint and rosemary use trichomes to produce essential oils that attract/repel certain bugs and otherwise protect the plant. In this picture, the flowers and leaves of meadow sage (salvia) are covered in trichomes.

As a cannabis grower, you can actually look at the trichomes on your buds and get a good idea of when they have reached peak potency. The color and shape of the trichomes allow you to harvest your cannabis at the exact right time to achieve the effects you’re looking for.

With marijuana plants, the trichomes tell you when to harvest!

The color and shape of trichomes on cannabis buds give you information about when to harvest, because harvesting at different times actually changes the effects and potency of buds.

In order to achieve the effects you’re looking for, it will serve you well to understand how trichomes look like at different stages of development, so you can harvest buds at the best possible moment!

About Using Pure Trichomes…

Unlike buds, pure trichomes don’t need to “cure” before they can be smoked. Curing mainly affects the green plant matter in buds, and has much less of an effect on trichomes. So hash that collects on scissors/fingers (or kief collected via a screen) can be used right away even if the plant was just harvested.

However, cured plant matter actually contributes to the effects of buds. That means the effects from pure trichomes will be different from regular cannabis buds. Although different, most growers agree they’re both good 🙂

Kief or hash (basically words for pure trichomes) can be smoked right away because trichomes don’t contain green matter. This kief was collected from extra cannabis leaves after harvest using the dry ice hash method (click for a close-up!)

Learn the 4 Stages of Trichome Development
(When To Harvest Cannabis)

  1. Not Ready to Harvest – Trichomes are clear and thin. At this point buds have very little potency.
  2. Beginning of Harvest Window (Focus on Mental Effects)– Mushroom “heads” start to get fat and trichomes start to turn milky white. As more trichomes turn white, the levels of THC and psychoactive effects tend to increase, giving a more “soaring” effect.
  3. End of Harvest Window (Focus on Body Effects)– After most of the trichomes have turned white they will start turning amber/yellow which is a sign that the THC is starting to convert to different cannabinoids. As trichomes turn amber the mental effects of buds are slightly reduced, but buds get more of a “couchlock” effect, with lots of body relaxation.
  4. Buds Have Passed Peak (Makes You Sleepy) – After most of the trichomes have turned amber, the trichomes will start to wither and die. Buds harvested at this point tend to have smaller mental effects, and tend to make you feel sleepy.

1.) Not Ready to Harvest

All the trichomes are clear and thin before the buds are ready to harvest. If you harvest at this point it can cause “speedy” effects or give you a headache. Chances are your buds won’t be as potent as they could have been because THC levels will be lower. Additionally, your yields will definitely be much lower because cannabis buds put on a lot of bulk during the last 2-3 weeks.

At this point the pistils/hairs on the buds are still mostly white and sticking out

The trichomes are still almost completely clear, which means they are still not very potent

The “heads” of the trichomes are still small, another sign the plant is not ready to harvest

As the trichome heads fill with “good stuff” they will start looking more fat and heavy and will eventually fall over.

2.) Beginning of Harvest Window

Some of the clear trichomes are starting to turn milky white, and the “heads” of the mushrooms are getting fatter as the trichomes fill with cannabinoids and other good stuff.

At the beginning of the harvest window, at least 40-50% of the pistils on the buds have darkened and curled inwards.

If you look up close, about half the trichomes have turned cloudy white. At the very beginning of the harvest window, the buds haven’t reached peak potency yet, but the overall yields and potency will continue to improve all through Stage 2.

When most of the trichomes have turned from clear to milky or cloudy white, it means the trichomes have reached peak levels of THC and will produce the greatest psychoactive effects.

Harvest when nearly all trichomes are white for the greatest mental effects

Sometimes the trichomes of certain plants will never turn amber (for example some Sativa and Haze strains). As long as most of the trichomes have turned from clear and thin to fat and white you know it’s a good time to harvest even if you don’t see any amber.

3.) End of Harvest Window

As white trichomes start to turn amber/yellow, it’s a sign that the mental and psychoactive effects of THC will be lessened, but buds tend to produce more of a body-high or “relaxation” effect.

By the end of the harvest window nearly all the pistils will have darkened and curled in

When the trichomes are mostly cloudy with some amber, you’ll achieve a good mix of mental and body effects

The end of the harvest window is around when 20-30% of the trichomes have turned amber. This bud is getting close to the end of the harvest window, but at this point, it will still produce excellent mental and body effects!

4.) Buds Have Passed Peak

If trichomes keep turning amber without being harvested, the buds begin to start losing potency. Buds that are harvested with more than 20% amber trichomes may make you feel sleepy.

How to See Trichomes on Buds

Here’s a quick primer on how to get a good look at the trichomes on your buds.

1.) Jeweler’s loupe or small magnifier

Although these do make trichomes appear bigger, the main problem with loupes/magnifiers is that they don’t magnify things quite big enough for some people. At least with my eyes, I have trouble seeing trichomes well enough to determine the color under a loupe. That being said, lots of growers use these without a problem!

Also, you can’t beat the price 🙂 This loupe on Amazon costs less than $10!

2.) Take a Picture & Zoom In

If you take a clear picture of your buds with a phone or camera and zoom in, you can often see the trichomes clear enough to identify their color.

Tips for taking good pictures of trichomes

  • Hold the phone or camera steady. It’s best if you can actually rest it on something so it doesn’t move at all. Even a little motion will make trichomes much less clear in pictures.
  • Take the picture in bright natural light. Don’t take pictures under unnatural colored lights like LED or HPS grow lights because it makes it really difficult to see the trichome color. Dim light will also make trichomes almost impossible to see.
  • Try Using the Flash – Try taking pictures with and without a flash, as it can make a big difference depending on the environment
  • Take a few different pictures from different angles, and from both close and far. Sometimes if you put a camera or phone in too close everything gets blurry, so you may have to move the camera further back than you’d originally think in order to get a clear shot
  • Optical Zoom – If your camera has an optical zoom (the lens can actually move as it focuses, like with most cameras but not phones) it can help to zoom in before taking the pic. Keep in mind that digital zoom (like what phones have) doesn’t help much.

Example, this picture was taken by a Samsung Galaxy 4 camera phone (2013 version) with the flash on. Many newer phones take even better pics!

If you zoom in really close, you can actually get a much closer view of the trichomes

In this case, nearly all the trichomes are white and fat, which means this plant is in the harvest window. However, sometimes even with a camera, it can be difficult to really see the trichomes.

3.) Camera phone attachment

Some phones have products that let you attach a small lens to your phone in front of the camera to magnify the image and take closer pictures. You can make these yourself by taking the lens out of a laser pointer and DIY attaching it to your phone, but the professional ones often are easier to use, and they cost less than $15.

4.) Digital microscope

A digital microscope is probably the easiest way to see the trichomes. They zoom in very close and allow you to take a video so you can really look at the trichomes after the fact.

When you see really nice pictures or videos of trichomes, it’s often because the media was taken with a digital microscope. These go in much closer than most magnifiers or cameras.

Here’s an example of a digital microscope in action – these buds are ready to harvest.

We took the above videos using the Carson zOrb hooked up to a laptop. So far this seems to be the most accurate and dependable way to look at trichomes we’ve found

How to Increase Number of Trichomes on Buds

Trichomes are what make buds potent, so most growers are interested in making sure their cannabis plants produce as many trichomes as possible.

Here are the main strategies growers use to increase the number of trichomes so buds look like they’re covered in “glitter.”

1.) The Right Kind of Light

Light needs to be very bright in the flowering stage

Cannabis plants grown under weak light tend to grow fewer trichomes and produce far less bud. The most trichome-encrusted bud is usually produced under very strong and bright grow lights like HPS grow lights.

Very strong grow lights like HPS bulbs make cannabis produce more trichomes than if the buds were under weaker lights in the flowering stage

UV-B/Sun/Metal Halide exposure

Some growers (including some famous ones like Ed Rosenthal) believe that exposing cannabis buds to UV-B light for the last 2-3 weeks before harvest can increase trichome production and overall potency. Although not yet proven, this may be partly because trichomes are theorized to help protect the plant from UV-B rays.

UV-B is the name for a “color” of light in the lower blue/violet spectrum that humans can’t see. It is produced by the sun and causes damage to plants and humans.

In fact, nearly all organisms on earth have defenses to protect themselves from UV-B rays. Humans get sun-burned if exposed to too much UV-B and can even get cancer in extreme cases, so our skin protects us by becoming darker in response to sunlight. Instead of a tan, plants produce trichomes that can help protect against UV-B rays (though trichomes also have many other uses such as producing cannabinoids and terpenes/essential oils/smells).

Metal halide grow lights produce UV-B light just like the sun! Although MH lights are generally only used in the vegetative stage like for these plants below, it may be helpful to expose buds to UV-B light for the last 2 weeks before harvest to increase trichome production.

The most common source of UV-B light for growers (besides the sun of course) are Metal Halide grow lights. UVB light is also produced by incandescent bulbs but they aren’t really bright enough to be used for this purpose.

Just remember that glass blocks UV-B rays, so if you’re using a metal halide bulb in an enclosed hood, it’s important to remove the glass (and find another way to cool the light) so UV-B rays actually reach your plant’s buds. Another option for UV-B light is reptile lamps, though not a lot of growers have those hanging around the house, and they’re not as powerful as a Metal Halide lamp 🙂
Possibly LED grow lights

Although most LED grow lights don’t produce any UV-B light, some growers believe the unique light spectrum of many LEDs actually stress plants in a way that causes it to produce more trichomes as a defense response. In the wild, trichomes can protect the buds from many dangers, including bugs. That may be why the plant produces more trichomes in response to certain types of stress.

This trichome-encrusted bud was grown under LED grow lights (click for a close-up)

2.) Environment: Alter Temperature & Humidity Near Harvest (Advanced)

The main thing to remember when it comes to altering your grow environment for the last 2-3 weeks before harvest is this:

  • Humidity below 30% – Drop the humidity of the grow space below 30% RH for last 2-3 weeks before harvest to increase trichome production
  • Temperature between 70-80°F – Make sure your temperature stays under 80°F (26°C) to ensure potency is not being baked right off your buds.

There are a couple of ways to lower the humidity while maintaining the right temperature:

  • Dehumidifier – brings humidity down while giving off heat and increasing temperature; the more powerful the better
  • Air Conditioner – brings humidity down while cooling the air

In extreme cases, I’ve heard of growers using both an AC and a dehumidifier at the same time to maintain that perfect temperature while dropping the humidity very low.

3.) Stress Plants in a “Good” Way

Since cannabis plants can produce trichomes as a response to certain types of stress, some growers try to stress cannabis in a “good” way to trigger that natural reaction.

The only proven way to stress plants in a good way is to lower the humidity and control the environment/lighting as stated above, but there are other unproven techniques that may or may not work. Since they are so popular, I think it’s important to mention them at least.

Some techniques like supercropping (bending stems without breaking the skin) may increase trichome production when done correctly

Stressing your plants can have negative consequences, like bud discoloration, re-vegging or hermies so it’s important to watch your plants closely. However, it’s usually safe as long as you save any major stress for the last week or two before harvest (so you’re not accidentally damaging your plant when it still has a long time to go). It’s also a good idea to ever avoid stressing plants that are already unhealthy or damaged.

Some strategies to stress plants to increase trichome production:

  • Supercropping – Bending/snapping plants in a way that stresses them without “breaking the skin” (if done right this can increase yields, too)
  • Other Physical Stress – I’ve heard of growers cutting leaves and putting nails though stems the last day or two before harvest. The later option makes me sad 🙁
  • Give 24-48 hours of darkness just before harvest – Be careful because if you don’t have a lot of green healthy leaves, this may discolor your buds.
  • Water plants with ice water just before harvest – I’ve heard of some growers giving plants icy water just before harvest to try to shock their roots. Again, this is an unproven method…

It’s not proven that these methods increase trichome production (though supercropping can certainly increase yields) but they are common strategies without much downside if they don’t work. If anyone has done a side-by-side comparison for any of these techniques, let us know!

4.) Trichome-Increasing Supplements

Some supplements claim to actually increase either the number of trichomes on your buds, or the potency of your buds. Although there are lots of “snake oil” products out there in the supplement world, some supplements have proven themselves time and again.

Rhizoflora Terpinator is one of the most popular supplements to help increase trichome production and is used by both hobbyist and commercial growers to increase both the number of trichomes and terpene (smell) production. There are probably other great supplements that do this, too, but this particular one has been tried and tested by many real cannabis growers.

5.) Choose a Strain That Naturally Grows Lots of Trichomes

If your strain doesn’t have the genetics to produce a lot of trichomes, there’s not a whole lot you can do to change that. Although the tips in this article will help you maximize the genes your plant already has, it can’t make up for mediocre/poor genetics.

With that being said, there are some strains that don’t show much glitter even though they are very potent (for example some Sativas and Hazes, Sour Diesel) so if you think glitter is important you have to pick the right strain. Here are some strains known for their glitter:

Not only does this strain make beautiful, sparkly buds, it also gets exceptional yields. Check out a grow journal from one of our readers featuring Critical Hog.

Tahoe OG by Cali Connection

This strain is often featured on the top shelf of dispensaries (at least here in Southern California) because the buds are particularly potent and pretty. These buds are so covered in frost they look almost white!

At this point, you’ve been armed with all the information you need to grow your own encrusted, trichome covered buds!

Make Your Buds Sparkle With More Trichomes Table of Contents What Are Trichomes? When growers say they want to make cannabis buds “sparkle” with trichomes, what are they talking

Increase Resin and THC Production

Inicio » News » Increase Resin and THC Production

  • Escrito por : Ciara
  • News
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It’s possible to increase resin and THC production in your plants, although only when they’re still alive; to do so when they’re dry would involve an alchemic process that we might deal with later on in a different article. Today we’re going to talk about how to raise the THC percentage in your plants. It’s known that there are no other plants in the world that are capable of producing THC; some can produce similar cannabinoids to CBG and CBD but there’s nothing similar to THC. This chemical composition is found in the resin from cannabis plants which serves the purpose of protecting the buds from UV-B rays. It’s been proven that plants grown at higher altitudes show much more THC; sativa plants from Ecuador or plants high in the mountains of India have more THC than those grown much lower down; the difference in these crops is, apart from air pressure, the quantity of UV-B rays.

Every cannabis plant has a mission, and that mission is to reproduce and make sure its genetics live on. Once the female flowers have been pollinized, they start growing seeds. During this process the plant will have to defend its progeny from insects, animals, fungi, light contamination etc. This caused marijuana plants to evolve and develop trichomes that, thanks to their sticky resin, protect the plants from all sorts of attacks. The resin in these plants is where you’ll find the cannabinoids that we all love. CBG is the first cannabinoid that will develop, and the enzymes in the plant then degrade once they come into contact with oxygen, turning CBG into other cannabinoids like THCa, which is the acidic form of the famous THC cannabinoid. Once THCa has been decarbonized, it becomes THC, and THC will also degrade to CBN due to plant maturity or the fact that the resin can degrade due to atmospheric issues. Either way, the longer you wait the more of a narcotic effect you’ll get from your plant as the CBN count will raise.

The quantity of resin and degradation of THC depends half on the strain that you’re growing and half on the actual crop conditions. This means that you can have the best strain in the world but if it isn’t grown properly the results won’t be that good, compared to a less well-regarded strain that has been grown in perfect conditions which can give an amazing resin yield.

Factors that influence how much resin a plant will produce are the temperature, the lighting, humidity and water quality. The temperature is a basic factor for decent resin production and it should be between 28 and 17ºC. Some people say that lowering the temperatures as much as possible will increase resin production; it might make shorter and more compact trichomes but it will put a halt to bud production, although your plant will continue to mature it just won’t grow any new flowers. If temperatures reach 28º then some vital substances will be lost in the resin, like essential oils and some terpenes. The trichome will become taller to defend the buds from the heat, but they’ll be much weaker and more likely to fall off therefore reducing resin production. These parameters define exactly how the resin is going to develop.

THC potency is decided, like we said before, by UV rays. There are three kinds of UV rays: UV-a, UV-b and UV-c. Like we said before, the more UV-b rays that your plants get the more production they’ll have but with a lower quality resin than expected, as these rays are extremely damaging to the resin’s composition. A 12 hour light period will give your plants a much more potent THC level than a 10 hour flowering period. The more intense the light, the more THC your plants will have.

Indoors you’ll need to use bulbs that have this kind of UV ray and the right color spectrum, which is hard to do with just HPS lights. If you can afford the luxury of placing three lights at the same time we recommend combining one HM light and 2 HPS lights; this will raise the THC content but lower the final yield a bit, which is more or less the same thing that happens outdoors in high places like we mentioned before.

Another important factor for resin production and THC grading is environmental humidity. Plants that have a dry environment tend to produce more resin as well as have a higher concentration of THC due to the fact that they have to protect their buds from dehydration. This pushes the plant to produce more protective trichomes and terpenes, increasing both intensity and taste. Of course these natural reactions happen because the plant wants to product the seeds inside the flowers, but it will still happen even if you’re growing all feminized plants with no pollinator due to how ingrained it is in the plants natural defense system. Generally, plants that are grown in higher and dryer areas tend to produce more resin and more THC, and those that are grown in humid conditions don’t fair nearly as well. Of course there are strains that do incredibly well in humid areas like Thailand and Cambodia.

According to William. A. Embodem, insects can be used to deliberately attack the plants so that they raise their defenses in response to the stress, creating more trichomes and THC. This is similar to the legend about putting a nail in your plants stalk, which we do not recommend as you can cause your plant to get an infection and you might lose it. In theory it works because there’s a hormonal change in your plants whenever they’re extremely stressed; they would stop growing flowers but they’d also increase resin production as well as more terpenes and cannabinoids.

Now, it’s time to talk about some other myths that people use when trying to get more THC in their plants:

  • Watering with LSD – Apart from being useless, even if this was done people would end up selling some super psychedelic weed on the market.
  • Letting it die in the pot without watering it – One thing is controlled water stress, another is to let your plant suffer for no reason; this will actually lower THC production.
  • Drying it in the sun – If you do this the THC in your bud will oxidize almost completely until it turns into CBN.
  • Watering it with juice or soda before harvesting – Apart from the fact that your plants won’t have enough time to absorb it, you might end up overdosing it on sugar.
  • Burying it in soil – if it’s humid you’ll end up with fungus and maybe possibly lung infections, and if it’s dry you’ll probably be fine to smoke it but it definitely won’t do anything to the THC levels.
  • Pulling it out with the roots and boiling them – THC is in the resin, which is in turn in the buds, so doing anything at all to the roots is a bit silly.

Author: Fabio Inga
Translation: Ciara Murphy

Learn how to increase resin and THC production, and how not to. It is possible to do as long as you respect your plants needs.