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marley genetics

Increased persistent Na+ current contributes to seizure in the slamdance bang-sensitive Drosophila mutant

Affiliation

  • 1 Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
  • PMID: 21451059
  • PMCID: PMC3129721
  • DOI: 10.1152/jn.00808.2010

Free PMC article

Increased persistent Na+ current contributes to seizure in the slamdance bang-sensitive Drosophila mutant

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Authors

Affiliation

  • 1 Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
  • PMID: 21451059
  • PMCID: PMC3129721
  • DOI: 10.1152/jn.00808.2010

Abstract

There is clinical need to extend the understanding of epilepsy and to find novel approaches to treat this condition. Bang-sensitive (bs) Drosophila mutants, which exhibit reduced thresholds for seizure, offer an attractive possibility to combine tractable genetics, electrophysiology, and high-throughput screening. However, despite these advantages, the precise electrophysiological aberrations that contribute to seizure have not been identified in any bs mutant. Because of this, the applicability of Drosophila as a preclinical model has not yet been established. In this study, we show that electroshock of bs slamdance (sda) larvae was sufficient to induce extended seizure-like episodes. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from identified motoneurons (termed aCC and RP2) showed synaptic currents that were greatly increased in both amplitude and duration. Current-clamp recordings indicated that these inputs produced longer-lived plateau depolarizations and increased action potential firing in these cells. An analysis of voltage-gated currents in these motoneurons, in both first and third instar larvae, revealed a consistently increased persistent Na(+) current (I(Nap)) and a reduced Ca(2+) current in first instar larvae, which appeared normal in older third instar larvae. That increased I(Nap) may contribute to seizure-like activity is indicated by the observation that feeding sda larvae the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, which was sufficient to reduce I(Nap), rescued both seizure-like episode duration and synaptic excitation of motoneurons. In contrast, feeding of either anemone toxin, a drug that preferentially increases I(Nap), or phenytoin to wild-type larvae was sufficient to induce a bs behavioral phenotype. Finally, we show that feeding of phenytoin to gravid sda females was sufficient to both reduce I(Nap) and synaptic currents and rescue the bs phenotype in their larval progeny, indicating that a heightened predisposition to seizure may arise as a consequence of abnormal embryonic neural development.

Figures

Both slamdance ( sda )…

Both slamdance ( sda ) adult flies and larvae display a bang-sensitive (bs)…

Endogenous synaptic drive elicits greater…

Endogenous synaptic drive elicits greater excitation in sda motoneurons. A and B :…

The persistent voltage-gated Na +…

The persistent voltage-gated Na + current ( I Nap ) is elevated in…

Phenytoin (PHY) both reduces I…

Phenytoin (PHY) both reduces I Nap in motoneurons and rescues seizure. A :…

PHY rescues the SRC amplitude…

PHY rescues the SRC amplitude and duration in sda larvae. A : SRC…

Seizure severity correlates with the…

Seizure severity correlates with the ratio of I Nap to I Nat .…

Maternal feeding of PHY reduces…

Maternal feeding of PHY reduces the ratio of I Nap to I Nat…

There is clinical need to extend the understanding of epilepsy and to find novel approaches to treat this condition. Bang-sensitive (bs) Drosophila mutants, which exhibit reduced thresholds for seizure, offer an attractive possibility to combine tractable genetics, electrophysiology, and high-throug …

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gorilla glue 5

Potlander

Strain Review: Gorilla Glue #5 by Devil’s Lettuce

Strain: Gorilla Glue #5
Parentage: Gorilla Glue #1 x Gorilla Glue #4
Breeder: GG Strains
Grower: Devil’s Lettuce
Cannabinoid Content: 21.2% THC

If we’re going to talk about Gorilla Glue #5, then we need to first talk about its proud parent Gorilla Glue #4. And to do that, we need to introduce a grower by the name of Josey Whales, who is widely recognized as the steward of modern cannabis’s happiest accident.

One morning, Whales entered his flower room to discover male pollen sacks growing from a female Chem’s Sister plant. He noticed that a nearby Sour Dubb plant had been dusted with pollen, and when the crop came down, he kept the seeds.

A year later, he tested out the happenstance genetics, but like their hermaphroditic father, the female offspring also produced male pollen sacks and an entire stadium grow grew to seed.

“I was pissed,” writes Whales in a widely quoted forum post. “I got rid of all of it to a friend, marrdog.”

Cutting his losses, Whales wanted nothing more to do with the experimental cross.

Luckily, his buddy Marrdog felt differently and took a gamble on the seeds, and what resulted changed cannabis forever: out of the four seeds germinated, three were viable females; and the plant labeled #4 was the “clear winner,” as Whales puts it.

So they kept the strain around, growing larger and larger batches of #4 clones. Subsequently, Gorilla Glue, named for the strain’s tendency to gunk up scissors during harvest, was born.

And the infant had legs, captivating the cannabis community overnight—winning numerous cup competitions and accruing an equally numerous collection of coveted industry accolades.

What’s more, Gorilla Glue #4 lived up to the hype. Medical patients were won over by the strain’s ability to treat pain without necessitating a nap. Connoisseurs flocked to the huge diesel aroma and potent-but-balanced hybrid high.

On the burgeoning dispensary circuit, a shop’s inventory wasn’t complete until a jar of GG4 held a spot on the shelf.

But the hype outpaced availability, and soon GG4 knockoffs and opportunistic crosses diluted the name in a hasty cash grab.

Nowadays, hundreds if not thousands of strains claiming a Glue lineage pepper the market. Some are great, others forgettable, and still more may have nothing to do with the original genetics.

The overall impact of iffy reliability was a reduced consumer confidence in Glue strains—a side effect of popularity that Whales and his Nevada-based breeding company GG Strains hope to eliminate with a more controlled approach to the release of their new and future strains, like Gorilla Glue #5.

A cross of GG1 and GG4, GG5 most resembles the family’s Sour Dubb heritage, while upping the yield and potency of the #4.

From a consumer perspective, it’s absolutely gorgeous weed. As grown by Portland-based cannabis manufacturer Devil’s Lettuce, GG5 is all candied blues and greens to the eyes; diesel-soaked leather and burnt rubber to the nose. It’s a fuel-strain lovers perfect pot.

The high is strong and long, centering and sleepy, stoning and blissful. Though this example of GG5 tests at a moderate 21.2% THC, the loud, terpinolene-dominant terpene profile ups the psychoactivity by cloudy leaps.

This tsunami strength translates to a less-social frame of mind, and seems more appropriate for meditation and introspection than hanging out with, well, anyone other than your TV. The reason being: GG5 tends to blunt emotional experiences and general reaction times, favoring a tranquil distance from mental highs and lows—which is great for when you’re alone, but not for when you need to hold down your end of a conversation.

The upside here is that emotional distance can be exactly what a person needs to rationally approach whatever it is that life throws their way.

From a medical perspective, GG5 is most appropriate as a sedative and sleep aid—goodbye, insomnia!—but it doesn’t seem to do much for pain like other heavy indicas of its class.

Compared to GG4, GG5 lacks the happy mental stimulation and sativa head space of its famed parent—opting for a more cohesive high that’s very good at doing one thing: chilling a person out.

All things considered, GG5 is a must-try for fuel lovers and fans of the original GG4, and a great option for anyone looking for stress relief and help getting to bed at night.

Potlander Strain Review: Gorilla Glue #5 by Devil’s Lettuce Strain: Gorilla Glue #5 Parentage: Gorilla Glue #1 x Gorilla Glue #4 Breeder: GG Strains Grower: Devil’s Lettuce

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weed austin tx

weed delivery in Austin, TX

Where to Buy Weed in Austin, TX?

Considering that Austin hasn’t passed medical and recreational marijuana legislation, this would require the state’s legislature to establish medical and recreational cannabis laws, as well as pass laws concerning the cultivation, processing, and sale of hemp. There are numerous places where you can purchase it. However, you can hardly be sure in the quality of your weed. How to protect yourself and find the best price-quality deal without making too much efforts?

Consider marijuana delivery: it is one of the easiest and most convenient ways to get high quality cannabis for a reasonable price. Potlala offers you more than just weed; this online service allows you to select best organic and licensed products with cannabis and to get them delivered discreet to your home or office.

How to Get Weed in Austin?

With Potlala, you can get access to the wide variety of high-grade marijuana products available in Austin, TX. Buy online to save time and avoid troubles!

Important: Potlala does not deliver cannabis products to school, college or university-belonging territories or other public places that have appropriate restrictions.

If it is your first order, you have a chance to get a special 10$ discount! Just use the code AUSTINTXDISCOUNT during your checkout and get a price cut.

Watch Out, There Is Low Quality Weed in Austin!

You cannot be sure in the quality of your cannabis unless you check the results of the independent lab testing. However, there are no licensed manufacturers in Austin at the moment. When you purchase weed from them, you step on the thin ice.

Potlala cooperates with brands that understand that quality is not something that can be compromised, so they are willing to pay for independent tests to gain the customer`s trust. Order delivery from Potlala and stay on the safe side!

In order to become a customer, you only need to be 18 or older. There are no other restrictions except those, which regulate the way you get your cannabis experience: no use in public places, no driving afterwards, and keeping weed away from children and teenagers.

Potlala offers weed delivery in Austin, TX. Order weed online in Austin, TX and get the best cannabis products delivered to you.

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dutch passion seeds usa

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Brexit(31-12-2020)
Because of Brexit, we are currently unable to ship orders to the U.K.
We hope to resume this service as soon as possible.


We do not ship to the USA!

We do know some of our re-sellers ship world wide. Find them here .


Do you have a problem with ordering?

If possible, add screenshots of the page where the problem started.

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Always state your order number and provide a clear description of the problem. Also try to describe how you proceeded before the problem arose. If possible, add photos of the problem.

Our employees speak English and Dutch.

We use translation programs for the other languages. Use short sentences and punctuation so that we can properly translate your question.

Do you have a complaint or question about an order that was not purchased directly from us?

Then add a proof of purchase. Business customers and media can contact our wholesale department.

We try to respond to your request within 24 hours on working days. Can’t wait 24 hours?

Call us! This is also possible with Skype. Our Skype account has been forwarded to our phone, so you don’t have to pay any calling costs.

Customer service The employees of our customer service are ready for you! For a smooth handling of your question, comment or complaint, we ask you to pay attention to the following:

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amphetamines and marijuana

The Dangers of Mixing Adderall and Weed

  • Adderall
  • cannabis
  • stimulants
  • weed

Adderall is a stimulant drug that excites the central nervous system and is used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy.

In contrast, marijuana or weed is a psychoactive drug with both medicinal and recreational purposes that often gives the user a relaxing sensation. Separately they can be beneficial, but when mixing Adderall and marijuana, there can be cause for concern.

What Happens When You Mix Weed & Adderall?

Although Adderall has viable medical uses, it can also be abused and is addictive. Some people will take the drug without a prescription to improve their focus. Others will simply take it for its euphoric effects. Its misuse can be dangerous regardless of the reason, but some people will go one step further and mix Adderall with weed in a combination sometimes known as weederall.

Those who have experience mixing Adderall and weed sometimes report that the drugs can decrease unwanted effects of the other. Weed, for example, is sometimes said to reduce undesirable emotions related to Adderall like agitation and distress. In contrast, Adderall may help with fatigue or lowered cognitive functioning from marijuana.

Although the two may seem like the perfect combination, mixing a stimulant and a depressant can also come with serious consequences. Because everyone is unique, effects can be unpredictable, and not everyone will experience a harmonious interaction. Alone, long-term abuse of Adderall can lead to arrhythmia, increased blood pressure, and addiction. A prescription drug detox can help addicted users quit, but some of the other health problems may be irreversible. Long-term marijuana abuse can be problematic as well and affect brain development leading to impaired thinking and memory problems. 1

In some cases, mixing Adderall and weed could exacerbate these harmful effects. Because marijuana can initially lead to an increased heart rate and Adderall has the same effect, a person on both drugs may have a racing heart. Over time, this side effect could lead to cardiovascular problems, especially if there is already an underlying heart condition. Another potentially dangerous side effect of mixing weed and Adderall is the increased risk of abuse. Together, the drugs may create a more pleasant and desirable high. This increased euphoria can lead to a strong desire to use again and lead to a faster onset of addiction. Regular users will likely need a medical detox to safely detox off of these substances and stop for good. There is also the potential to overdose on Adderall more easily. Because weed masks some of Adderall’s effects, users may end up taking more of the drug than they realize.

Unnecessary drug interaction of any kind can be dangerous. It is important to always consult a doctor about mixing substances. If you have become addicted to any substances and cannot stop, get help. At Banyan Detox Stuart, our residential drug rehab helps people overcome various substance abuse problems and find lasting sobriety.

Do not be fooled by what you may have heard on the street, mixing Adderall and weed may be dangerous. Here’s what you want to avoid. .

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cupped up outdoors

cupped up outdoors

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Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys Products Available Today Up to 11% Off! — 3 products / 3 models — Page 1

You will appreciate the savings on your purchase of one of the 3 Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys offered at such competitive prices at OpticsPlanet.

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Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys Reviews

There are thousands of product reviews from verified purchasers from OpticsPlanet. You can read all the Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys Reviews here and receive useful information from our network of satisfied customers including product quality, shipping speed, customer service and sometimes even stories of using their Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys.

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Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys Products Available Today Up to 11% Off! — 3 products / 3 models — Page 1 You will appreciate the savings on your purchase

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lemon cheese strain

Lemon cheese strain

Pretty sure I got the same stuff literally as someone else who wrote a review for this LOL 🤣. Got some franco’s lemon cheese from Boston area. Fantastic strain in pretty much every way. Sativa dominant but definitely a kick of indica for me. Not a super cerebral sativa though that some find a bit racey, just well balanced. Flavor is spot on. Lemony with a little of that cheese funk at the end. Super smooth and super potent smelling and tasting. They did franco proud with it and luckily I got some that was grown extremely well!

This strain is fantastic. Flavor is mostly lemon with a hint of that cheese funk near the end. Super smooth smoke. Definitely creeps on the sativa side more for me from that super lemon haze but you get some of that indica from the cheese in the background. Only thing I should mention I’m pretty sure I got the same stuff from the guy who said he got in Boston for 280 a z too! 😆🤣.

Franco’s Lemon Cheese. Lemon, Earthy Lemon, Open the bag ( see photo of 3 nugs ). a gorgeous bud just to admire, Grind these beautiful soft nuggets and release more lemony, earthy with slight stone fruit undertones very light skunk Lighting it up, the smoke is rich, very smooth and of course lemon exhale and very slighty skunk on the nose, smooth light inhale. heavier on the exhale. a really beautiful smoking bud, high coming on a little creep of euphoria. tingling 10 mintues in in full buzz mode relaxing, feeling great. mellow high only smoked half as joint so far. feels like a great day time high, def some energy and focus. could be a good strain for ADHD 280 a Z – Black Market – Boston area

Excellent strain with phenomenal terpene production. It’s stimulating and uplifting. It’s one of favorite strains to grow. And for the other commenter, it is excellent in edible form. One of my favorite daytime strains.

Got this from my local dispensary. What a unique smell and very sticky. The smell is hard to put into words honestly but very unique and incredible. Tastes fresh and what a great euphoric and energizing vibe I got from this. Definitely be a staple in my day smoking grind. Might be interesting to throw this strain into some edible cookies. Cheers!

Lemon Cheese is a slightly sativa dominant hybrid strain (60% sativa/40% indica) created through crossing the classic Exodus Cheese X Super Lemon Haze strains. In terms of flavor, the name “Lemon Cheese” says it all. This baby packs a sweet and sour lemony flavor with a rich pungent cheese exhale…

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is marijuana legal in finland

Is marijuana legal in finland

31 Jul 2017 According to her, in countries that had legalized marijuana, it had “resulted partially or completely legal in Croatia, France, Romania, Finland, 1 Sep 2015 If you are in the international market for marijuana, your legal options Because marijuana is less common in Finland than other countries in

Some countries have introduced zero-tolerance laws (per se laws), which prohibit the operation of a motor vehicle while an illicit drug or its metabolite is present 6 Jun 2019 Marijuana in Finland Is “weed” legal in Finland? Image Marijuana plant – Getty Images By Terri Mapes Scandinavia Travel Expert Updated Laws And Lawful News About Pot In Helsinki, Finland. The ownership of pot in Helsinki is unlawful. In the 60’s, cannabis is sorted as opiate yet another law 1 Jun 2020 Cannabidiol with THC is legal! It is not a surprise that may think that cannabidiol is illegal. For example, following media gives you usually a This report is a compilation of the most recent Finnish research on drugs and key indicators of the an illegal drug besides cannabis at some time in their lives. Where to Buy Weed in Finland, MN? Considering that medical cannabis is now legal in Finland, there are numerous places where you can purchase it. However

Recreational marijuana occupies a legal grey area in the country. While the Netherlands is famous for its cannabis “coffee shops,” marijuana is in fact illegal in the country, but for the most part tolerated, and it is legal for sale in coffee shops.

Countries like Argentina, Australia, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, etc have legalised medicinal use of marijuana. Marijuana use was legal for most of human history, until the early 20th century. Between 1916 and 1931, 29 U.S. states banned the use of marijuana. The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 essentially made Marijuana laws are changing at a rapid pace across all 50 states, making things a bit confusing at times. In order to keep up with the ever-changing laws, DISA has provided this interactive map for information on legalization, medical use, recreational use, and anything in between. Are you wondering what the marijuana laws are in your state? 26 Jun 2019 Legality. Though not completely banned in the country, marijuana is by no means fully legalized in Finland either. In 2008, after years of

26 Apr 2020 For example, the legalization of medical cannabis in Germany resulted Canada, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland,

Jun 11, 2018 Aug 06, 2020 Mar 04, 2020 Sep 07, 2002

In which branches obtain cannabis in Finland, Ontario? Weed delivery, recommended site; On which website purchase cannabis at Finland, Ontario? LIST OF WORKING voucher CODES : How to obtain marijuana in Finland, Ontario? Is pot legal in Finland, Ontario?? Marijuana is available across the Canada, in particular in Finland, Ontario.

25 Feb 2019 Finland is debating the opening of its first drug consumption room to respond to high overdose death rates. Tuukka Tammi, a top researcher in

Though not completely banned in the country, marijuana is by no means fully legalized in Finland either. In 2008, after years of prohibition, the country made the progressive choice to allow for cannabis to be prescribed medically.

Cannabis in Finland is illegal. The 50th chapter of the Criminal Code criminalises all dealings with illegal narcotics, including the production, import, transport, 20 May 2020 Finland’s Narcotics Act states that the cultivation of cannabis is illegal. This means that you’re not permitted to grow it in your home under any 1 Oct 2017 RECREATIONAL MARIJUANA IN FINLAND. Possession of cannabis for recreational purposes is officially illegal in Finland. But law enforcement Possession is illegal, possession of over 5 grammes is with intent to distribute, fines (60€ up) are the most common method of handling cannabis, and jail time 9 Jul 2020 Medical Marijuana In Finland. So Finland does have a legal medical weed program, however it is still reasonably limited. The cannabis-based

Is marijuana legal in finland 31 Jul 2017 According to her, in countries that had legalized marijuana, it had “resulted partially or completely legal in Croatia, France, Romania, Finland, 1 Sep

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jamaica cannabis cup

High Times Cannabis Cup Jamaica

High Times Cannabis Cup Jamaica

March 1, 2018 @ 8:00 am – March 4, 2018 @ 8:00 pm

A Cannabis Cup pass includes entry to the expo for the duration of the festival along with admission to all seminars, concerts, ceremonies and a free shuttle from your hotel to all Cannabis Cup-related activities. You also get a gift bag, a special Cannabis Cup T-shirt and program guide outlining the schedule of events. Tickets are available for purchase prior to the festival at cannabiscup.com.

The core of the Cannabis Cup is the expo, which is similar in some aspects to a business convention. There are booths showcasing smoking paraphernalia, cultivation seminars, food stalls and live music performance—reggae being a popular favorite. If you are lucky, you might even bump into a famous celebrity weed-smoker like Snoop Dogg, who has attended the festival in recent years. And festival activities are not limited to the expo. 420-friendly side excursions will be on offer from many hotels and resorts in Negril.

High Times Cannabis Cup Jamaica High Times Cannabis Cup Jamaica March 1, 2018 @ 8:00 am – March 4, 2018 @ 8:00 pm A Cannabis Cup pass includes entry to the expo for the duration of the

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marijuana ann arbor

Ann Arbor Dispensary

Open for Recreational & Medical Cannabis Sales

OUR SHOWROOM IS OPEN!!
Come on in to see us, or order online using the links below.

Ann Arbor, MI

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If you have a general company question, use the contact form here for a response within 24 hours. Vendors can inquire or reach out direct by email [email protected] For store-specific information use our locations page to find your store’s phone number/email.

DO YOU HAVE TO HAVE A MEDICAL CARD TO PURCHASE CANNABIS PRODUCT?

This varies depending on each location’s regulations, we suggest visiting our locations page for each store’s status.

HOW MANY SHOPS DO YOU HAVE?
The full list of our active shops can be found on our LOCATIONS page. We have shops opening up frequently, so be sure to check back often!

DO YOU ACCEPT OUT OF STATE CUSTOMERS?
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WHAT IS YOUR RETURN POLICY?
We accept broken products for 7 days after purchase with a receipt.

DO YOU ACCEPT CREDIT/DEBIT?
We are cash only, but there is an ATM on site.

High Profile Cannabis Ann Arbor, MI location serving recreational and medical customers daily. Serving our top shelf cannabis in the heart of Ann Arbor.