blue widow seeds

Blue widow seeds

Blue Widow cannabis seeds by Dinafem Seeds belong to a feminized Sativa/Indica cannabis strain obtained by crossing a Blueberry and a White Widow. The result is a balanced hybrid with several properties appreciated by growers worldwide.

This cannabis seed is a true delicacy that clearly displays the rich complexity of its genetic parentage. It grows into a wonderful, fast-flowering, easy-to-grow, medium-sized, vigorous marijuana plant that yields large, compact buds covered in a good layer of trichomes. The influence of its parent Blueberry makes her develop a nice purple/violet hue if night temperatures drop by 10ºC.

Suitable for growers of all levels, Blue Widow allows you to obtain abundant quality crops in a fast way. It does well indoors with all the cultivation methods and outdoors in temperate/Mediterranean climates or in a greenhouse. It is advisable not to overfeed this classic that continues to impress growers wherever it goes.

The flavour and aroma are pronounced, with clear bittersweet notes of berries. The effect is powerful, balanced, physical, cerebral and long-lasting. It is the perfect cannabis strain to spend some time just relaxing.

Characteristics of Blue Widow cannabis seeds

Suitable for indoors and outdoors
Sex: feminized
Genotype: 50% Sativa/50% Indica
Cross: Blueberry x White Widow
Indoor flowering period: 50-55 jours
Outdoor harvest time: early/mid-October
Indoor yield: 525 g/m2
Outdoor yield: 1100 g/plant
Outdoor height: around 3 m
THC: high (12-16%)
CBD: medium

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Best Outdoor Cannabis Seed 2015 – Copa Cannabis Uruguay

3rd Best Indica strain 2013 Treating Yourself Cup Canada-Toronto

<p>Blue Widow cannabis seeds by Dinafem Seeds belong to a feminized Sativa/Indica cannabis strain obtained by crossing a Blueberry and a White Widow. The result is a balanced hybrid with several properties appreciated by growers worldwide.</p> <p>This

Blue Widow Cannabis Seeds

Blue Widow Cannabis Seeds from Dinafem Seeds

Blue Widow is a feminised cannabis seed that leaves a deep imprint wherever she goes, which is no surprise, being one of the most admired and most highly regarded cannabis jewels of the international market. At Dinafem Seeds, we wanted to create something spectacular and we soon agreed to cross two cannabis heavyweights with rich and complex traits: Blueberryand White Widow. Humbly speaking, we can’t but say that we couldn’t have done it better. The mix of these two strains has resulted in a top-notch and balanced 50% Indica/50% Sativa hybrid of exceptional quality that has been very highly rated by experts in the sector.

1st prize in the ‘Best Outdoor’ category at the 2015 Copa Cannabis (Uruguay)
3rd prize in the ‘Best Indica’ category at the 2013 Treating Yourself Expo Cannabis Cup, held in Toronto (Canada)


Blue Widow is a marijuana strain with a breathtaking pedigree, meaning incredibly beautiful, sturdy and stable plants are obtained with her. Although not particularly big, they’re surprisingly resistant and compact, with lots of branches that end up completely full of bulky buds at the end of the flowering. And, as the icing on the cake, some beautiful purplish and blueish hues cover their entire body when the temperature drops at night during the flowering.


Blue Widow produces generous top-quality crops of compact, bulky buds completely covered by the typical thick layer of white and smelly resin. The yield indoors could rise to 525 g/m2 and to 1100 g/plant outdoors; some very interesting figures knowing, besides, that we’re talking about top-quality weed and high-end irresistible resin.

Aromas and Flavours

Blue Widow showcases very attractive organoleptic qualities, with buds giving off an intense and sweet fruity aroma accompanied by sweet-and-sour hints and some touches of berries. The complexity is such that some people claim her to be a delicacy. Is your mouth watering yet? You bet it’s not for nothing! You’ll see…


Blue Widow delivers an initially cerebrally stimulating and psychedelic high that turns more physically relaxing as time passes by. A potent, balanced and long-lasting puff of wellness that has come to stay. We’re ready to enjoy a peaceful rest, a good movie or a jam session! And, to top it off, she showcases many therapeutic properties: she can stimulate the appetite, help you sleep and alleviate muscle tension, for example.


Blue Widow has an enormous potential that has to be exploited. How? The key is to make sure she receives a balanced diet and that the growing conditions (light, ventilation, tidiness and cleanliness) are just perfect. Any type of grower, experienced or not, can obtain great results with her because she grows vigorously. In a remarkably short time, in some 50-55 days indoors, and using a growing method that we master, the results will be more than satisfactory. Outdoors, she thrives in temperate, Mediterranean climates and, of course, under the protection of the greenhouse. In either case, she’ll be ready for harvest by early to mid-October. If we live in a humid region instead, there’s nothing to worry about because she copes well with all kinds of weather.

Buy Blue Widow Cannabis Seeds by Dinafem Seeds from Seed City ★ Choose Your Own FREE SEEDS! ★ Secure, Discreet, Guaranteed Shipping!


raspberry seed oil sunscreen

Can Raspberry and Carrot seed oils really protect your skin from the sun?

Posted by Aleksandra Andrade on February 23, 2017

“Before you read, please keep in mind that this post has been originally published in the summer of 2015; therefore, some of the information provided here may be outdated (such as studies on the UV capabilities of Raspberry Seed Oil, which some of you have kindly pointed out). This fact, however, does not change my point of view on the issue.”

– Yours, AA

In the past couple years there has been an increasing interest around the use of natural oils as sunscreens. There are hundreds (if not more) blog posts and DIY sunscreen recipes all over the internet that promise all-natural UV protection. In this post I will try to get to the bottom of this subject by providing facts and busting the myths around the most popular oils with high SPF claims – Raspberry Seed and Carrot Seed Oils.

Let’s start with the basics and talk about what sunscreen is and what SPF stands for.

Sunscreen (also commonly known as sun screen, sunblock, suntan lotion, sunburn cream, sun cream or block out) is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin exposed to sunlight and thus helps protect against sunburn.

SPF – or Sun Protection Factor – is a measure of a sunscreen’s ability to prevent UVB from damaging the skin. Here’s how it works: If it takes 20 minutes for your unprotected skin to start turning red, using an SPF 15 sunscreen theoretically prevents reddening 15 times longer – about five hours. SPF does not equal the amount of protection. It indicates how long will it take for the skin to redden when a particular product is applied, as compared to unprotected skin.

There are 2 types of UV radiation (Well, it’s technically 3 but UVC – the 3rd type, doesn’t reach the earth as it is absorbed by the ozone layer). So the first type is UVA light which has a longer wave and this is the type of radiation that causes the aging, wrinkling. UVA is also known as a “tanning” rays. The second type – UVB, has a shorter wave length and is considered to be the main cause of sunburns. Both types of UV radiation are attributed to skin cancer. In order to be protected from both types we should choose a sunscreen that is broad spectrum.

More people are looking for natural alternatives to chemical UV filters that are commonly used in conventional sunscreens. It is known that some natural oils and butters, such as Jojoba, Avocado, Shea and a few others possess a small amount of SPF (around 2-4). This amount is however rather too small to provide with any significant protection against of the UV rays. This SPF claims also can not be considered trustworthy since the SPF can vary depending on the methods of extraction and individual quality of raw material used. On top of this, here in the USA sunscreen is considered to be an over-the-counter drug, thus it is strictly regulated by the FDA. One can not just mix a few ingredients that hypothetically may contain an SPF and call it a sunscreen. The two oils that have been widely advertised for having a high SPF by the bloggers and diy’ers are the Raspberry and Carrot Seed oils.

So what is Raspberry Seed Oil?

This is how I have described Raspberry Seed in one of my previous posts:

Highly moisturizing and emollient Red Raspberry (aka Rubus idaeus) seed oil is bright gold to reddish in color with characteristic fruity aroma. It contains high amounts of alpha and gamma tocopherols (Vitamin E), polyphenols and Vitamin C. It is also rich in Vitamin A and contains up to 83% omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Red raspberry seed oil has more pronounced anti-inflammatory properties than avocado, grapeseed, hazelnut and wheatgerm oils and may prove to be the most effective oil to use in the treatment of eczema, psoriasis and other skin conditions. Due to a high level of Vitamin A it can also be beneficial in on oily and acneic skin types. Its strong antioxidant, nourishing and healing properties along with a stable shelf life make it an attractive ingredient for many types of skincare products.

So, Raspberry seed oil is a carrier oil with great anti-oxidant properties.

Now, lets talk about Carrot Seed Oil.

Carrot seed oil is the essential oil extract of the seed from the carrot plant Daucus carota. The oil has a woody, earthy sweet smell and is yellow or amber-coloured to pale orange-brown in appearance. The pharmocologically active constituents of carrot seed extract are three flavones: luteolin, luteolin 3′-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin 4′-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.[Wikipedia]

Carrot Seed oil is not a carrier oil, on the other hand. It normally comes in a form of an essential oil. Essential oils have a different chemical composition to carrier oils and normally should not be used at a full strength (undiluted).

So what is the hype about the oils photo protective capabilities?

Many sources claim that Raspberry Seed Oil contains an SPF of 28-40 and Carrot Seed Oil – 30-40. This seems high, isn’t it? But what is the source of these claims? Where is the proof, a study or anything related? Here is what Robert Tisserand (one of the world’s leading expert in aromatherapy) have said on his official Facebook page:

“I have been asked a few times recently to provide evidence that carrot seed essential oil is not an effective sunscreen. I think the onus is on those who claim that it is a sunscreen to provide some substantiating evidence. The purported 38-40 SPF for carrot seed oil is based on some Indian research where they tested a natural sunscreen product that contained “Daucus carota” AND OTHER INGREDIENTS, and the product had an SPF of 38 in one test, and 40 in another. This does not mean that carrot seed oil of any type has a meaningful SPF. It’s more likely that they used carrot seed fatty oil than any other type of carrot extract, but the article does not give us that information. So, carrot seed FATTY oil may be very slightly sun-protective, but it has no known SPF. And, there are no essential oils that meaningfully filter UV rays.

The bogus claim that carrot seed oil and/or essential oil provides a sun protection factor (SPF) of 38-40 is made largely on websites belonging to ‘Independent Distributors’ of Young Living products. The claim rests solely on an article that appeared in Pharmacognosy Magazine in 2009.…Having studied the article in question – and in particular the chart listing the un-named and therefore coded 14 ‘natural’ sunscreen products tested – I am convinced that it provides no basis whatsoever for claiming that carrot seed oil and/or essential oil provides a SPF of 38-40.The reason? Because the only product tested (‘HS3’) containing Daucus carota, together with ‘Symplocos’ and ‘wheat germ’, listed here.…. is quite obviously this product.…/Biotique-CARROT-Face-Body-Sun-L…. which contains zinc. It is primarily the zinc which makes the cream SPF 38-40, not the carrot seed oil and/or essential oil (the ‘Independent Distributors’ tend to refer to them interchangeably). People should be warned against making their own carrot oil-based sun protective cream, erroneously believing it will protect them against UV rays – especially where 3-year-old children are concerned.…

As for Raspberry Seed Oil, I was not able to find any studies or proof showing that it has any sun-protective capabilities, so I have decided to conduct a little experiment of my own. One a cloudy day a few weeks ago, I have applied an Organic Raspberry Seed Oil on my face and neck and went for a walk in a local botanical garden. Our botanical garden had plenty of shade and I was not in the sun most of the time. My walk lasted for about 1,5-2 hours. A few hours after getting back to the house I have assessed the ‘damage’. As a result of this experiment I did develop sun-induced erythema (redness). My skin was also flaking during the days #2 and #3 following this experiment. The conclusion? Raspberry Seed oil does not provide with adequate protection from the sun!

As much as I advocate for natural skin care solutions as a holistic esthetician, I can not recommend using any oils in place of your sunscreen. Whether they are used alone or mixed together in a balm, these oils DO NOT provide with sun protection. They however can be a great addition to a properly formulated sunscreen and can also help with skin soothing and regeneration after the sun exposure. If you still need more proof, check out this article posted by Formula Botanica on their website.

Raspberry Seed oil has a pretty impressive antioxidant profile. It is rich in Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acids and contains a high level of Vitamin E. It’s anti-inflammatory properties are phenomenal and are said to be even greater than those of Avocado, Grapeseed and Wheatgerm oils. Even though I don’t recommend using it in place of a sunscreen, I love using Raspberry Seed oil in my oil-serum formulations like this “Youthful Glow” antioxidant face oil. This light and silky face oil formula is loaded with antioxidants. It helps rejuvenate dull and environmentally damaged skin and restores youthful glow in any skin type.

As always I hope you found this post useful. Please choose your sunscreen wisely and always practice safe sun!


Thanks for your well informed article. While I respect the comments about the study showing red raspberry seed oil having high spf protection this same study states that the UVA protection properties of Red raspberry seed oil are only spf8. UVA rays penetrate deep into skin layers and does substantial long term damage to your skin. I am an avid maker of my own products but sun protection is one product I am going to leave to experts. Hunt around for some brands that are properly tested and will protect your skin. Skin cancer is not something you want to risk.

Many Essential oil only Protect from UVB not UVA. So you can still get burned.

Thank you so much for your unbiased information plus your own personal experimentation.
It gets confusing because like anyone else I want go as natural as possible, but I will from now on use your advice.
Thank you.

The 2000 study wasn’t done on Raspberry oil they don’t even use the equipment required to do that. They referenced something from a sunscreen ingredient manufacturer called Kobo. They also took the information out of context. There are at least 20 major sunscreen ingredient manufacturers in the world, if raspberry oil provided an UV spf of 28-50 and uva of 7 they would take the world by storm and be taking over a market eager for natural ingredients. Not even Kobo uses raspberry oil in any of their sunscreen ingredients. Is there some spf in raspberry oil, yes, as there is in any plant oil or any cream or lotion one applies to their skin. It’s one thing to see information on google, it’s another thing to analyze it and follow the trail for accurate information. As well, the one study from India was done by one man who recorded things correctly, but those quoting his study don’t bother to think things through and analyze what he recorded, properly. How he recorded it then has to be converted to real spfs, which those quoting it and the 2000 reference, don’t do. Plant oils don’t and can’t give more than about a uvb rating of 6 or 7, but again, that can be attained by putting a plain lotion with no oils on ones skin. Are there some benefits for the skin from plant oils, for sure. Is it possible that a plant oil can boost a typical sunscreen ingredient a little bit in a sunscreen product, yes.

*Apologies – in my last comment I mentioned there was a citation “above”, not realizing the order the comments are posted!!

"Before you read, please keep in mind that this post has been originally published in the summer of 2015; therefore, some of the information provided here may be outdated (such as studies on the UV capabilities of Raspberry Seed Oil, which some of you have kindly pointed out). This fact, however, does not change my poi

Does Raspberry Seed Oil Offer Natural SPF?

There has been much discussion and controversy regarding healthy sun protection. Chemical sunscreens have been proven to be carcinogenic or endocrine disrupting and although mineral sunscreens appear to be safer, its unclear how these minerals are being processed or manufactured. We are so afraid of skin cancer and are told to slather ourselves with sunscreen and avoid the sun. It’s important to understand that the sun naturally boosts the production of melatonin, serotonin and Vitamin D that are critical to our health. Rather than avoiding the sun, we need to practice responsible sun exposure and sun protection.

Did you know that natural sun protection can be found in plant oils?

According to a 2000 study, raspberry seed oil offers UVA + UVB protection similar to titanium dioxide with a 28-50 SPF protection factor against UVB rays and 8 SPF against UVA rays.

We do not suggest using red raspberry seed oil as your sun protection for a full day in the sun due to its low UVA coverage. We prefer to recommend wearing a hat and staying out of the sun during peak hours. When choosing a sunscreen, choose one that contains non-nano zinc oxide and be sure to reapply it every 2 hours that you’re in the sun. A sunscreen should contain a high UVA rating and an SPF 30 (which indicates levels of UVB protection). Sunscreens with high UVB + low UVA protection offer a false sense of security. Just because you’re not burning, it doesn’t meant that you aren’t creating sun damage. Sunburn is nature’s alarm system, which you turn off with high SPF sunscreens. If you’re turning pink it’s time to get out of the sun!

When choosing skin care products with natural sun protection to strengthen the skin, we do recommend seeking out products that contain the following oils:

Raspberry Seed Oil is rich in omega 3 + 6 fatty acids and antioxidants. It offers UVA and UVB sun protection and is similar to titanium dioxide protection, found in most mineral sunscreens. In addition to providing SPF 8 UVA and SPF 28-50 UVB protection, it also helps heal eczema and psoriasis as well as prevents stretch marks.

Carrot Seed Oil (not to be confused with Carrot Seed essential oil) is a vegetable oil rich in antioxidants, contains antiseptic qualities and offers SPF of 38-40.

Jojoba Oil, rich in Vit A + E effectively treats bruises, psoriasis, sunburn and chapped dry skin. It closely resembles skin’s natural sebum, making it an ideal replenishment oil. Jojoba contains anti-inflammatory Myristic acid with SPF 4.

Coconut Oil is one of the most versatile natural oils that can be used for cooking, baking and applying on your hair and skin for SPF 2-8.

Wheatgerm Oil is rich in Vit E and antioxidants to repair cell damage and provides SPF 20.

Avocado Oil contains mono-saturated fats that form a protective layer over the skin to prevent sun tanning and offer SPF 4-15.

Soy Bean Oil is often used in Chinese cooking, use it for light hydration and SPF 10.

Extra Virgin Olive Oil is healthy to consume, provides antioxidants to repair cell damage and an SPF 2-8.

Macadamia Nut Oil is rich in phosphorus, potassium, Vit E and cinnamic acid that contributes to the oil’s SPF 6 protection.

Almond Oil is rich in Vit E, nourishes the skin while offering SPF 5.

There has been much discussion and controversy regarding healthy sun protection. Chemical sunscreens have been proven to be carcinogenic or endocrine disrupting and although mineral sunscreens appear to be safer, its unclear how these minerals are being processed or manufactured. We are so afraid of skin cancer and are


north american landrace strains

Landrace Strains: The Complete Guide To These Rare Strains

When it comes to cannabis, variety really is the spice of life. From Fruity Pebbles to Thin Mint Girl Scout Cookies, there always seems to be a strain for every occasion. But did you know that all the strains we have today trace back to a handful of original cannabis plant types known as landrace strains?

It’s true. In fact, botanists can trace the entire cannabis lineage back to an original landrace strain in the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan and Pakistan. We know — mind blown, right?

So what is a landrace strain, specifically? What makes them unique? And should you drop everything, sell your car, and trek to the back of beyond just to try one?

In this article, the experts at Honest Marijuana will answer those questions and tell you everything you need to know about the rare landrace strains.

An Extremely Brief History Of Cannabis

Historical documents from as far back as 2900 B.C.E. (before common era) and archaeological evidence from various regions indicate that cannabis was already in use during the Neolithic period in China.

That means humans could have been smoking weed as far back as 10,000 B.C.E.!

Actually, that’s a bit of an exaggeration. Our ancient stoner ancestors probably consumed cannabis as an edible or as a weed tea. It probably wasn’t until later that some ganja genius got it in his or her head to inhale the smoke of a burning pot plant.

We really don’t know for sure about cannabis use, though, because Wikipedia didn’t exist back then and no one wrote anything down (they probably forgot because they were stoned off their weed tea).

Cannabis genetics are a different thing entirely. Botanists don’t need written records to do some pretty amazing things, like trace all the cannabis strains that we know about today back to single plant variety that first developed in the Hindu Kush region of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Keep in mind that this area was a no-man’s land between Indian and Chinese civilizations way back then. But it’s not hard to imagine an intrepid Chinese explorer stumbling upon a crop of wild cannabis in this region, eating it, burning it, or just using the fibers for something, thereby kicking off our current marijuana revolution.

From that earliest discovery, mankind took cannabis wherever they went and the plant spread outside the Kush and China to Russia, Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and even parts of North America.

Through the intervening years, ganja growers have combined strain after strain of cannabis plants in order to produce different results.

Some growers wanted the plant to grow in cooler climates. Some growers wanted the plant to grow in warmer climates. Some growers wanted to isolate a particular flavor. That led to the production of the myriad strains we have now.

But everything can be traced back to that one original strain and the handful of landrace strains that followed.

What Is A Landrace Strain?

A landrace strain is a variety of cannabis plant that has less diluted DNA than other strains of cannabis. That means landrace strains have not been crossbred with another variety of cannabis.

To take the distinction even further, landrace strains are usually indigenous to a certain part of the world (meaning they have adapted to the environment of a specific geographic location). And since these landrace strains are the original cannabis plant from that area, descendants from those strains often bear part of the region’s name (e.g., Kandy Kush, Durban Thai, Super Lemon Haze).

Let’s think of it this way for clarification: The original strain that developed in the Hindu Kush so many thousands of years ago was a wild species.

Caveman potheads took seeds from that wild species and planted them in various parts of the world in the thousands of years between then and now. Those plants that were directly descended from the original species are now known as landrace strains.

From there (in, say, the past 100-200 years), mankind continued to practice selective breeding of the cannabis plant for genetic improvement. That produced the modern hybrid strains we enjoy today.

6 Landrace Strains From Around The World

Here, for your pleasure, is a brief list of six landrace strains from around the world. This is by no means an exhaustive list. It’s just to give you an idea of where that Chem Dog you’re smoking came from:

Hindu Kush, Pakistan

Pure Afghan, Afghanistan

Lamb’s Bread, Jamaica

Acapulco Gold, Mexico

Durban Poison, Africa

Panama Red, Central America

Are Landrace Strains Unique In Some Way?

It’s important to understand that the landrace classification only describes the strain’s genetic purity and indigenous upbringing.

It does not mean that landrace strains will get you higher than a good batch of Blue Dream or cut your anxiety quicker than a high-CBD strain.

In fact, modern strains are much better than landrace strains at generating the effects we’re all looking for (be they recreational or medicinal). That’s because growers have bred the plants for those specific effects.

Landrace strains are not “better” than modern strains, or even really unique in any way. They just have less diluted DNA. They’re closer to the original wild species than anything else we have available today.

To put it in perspective, it’s like comparing the very first car (let’s say it was the Model T for simplicity’s sake) with the newest BMW.

You’re going to enjoy cruising around in the BMW more than you would the Model T — the BMW is comfier, rides better, is easier to start, and goes faster (just to name a few) — but it’s still good to know where that BMW originally came from.

That’s how you can look at landrace strains today. They’re really only useful to historians, scientists, and pot purists.

The one benefit from trying a landrace strain would be experiencing more genuine effects that are closer to those produced by the original cannabis strain. Maybe the high or the medicinal effects were completely different. We just don’t know.

Where Have All The Pure Landrace Strains Gone?

You may be wondering why you haven’t heard about landrace strains before. Where have they all gone?

To answer both questions at the same time: the original landrace strains have been taken out of their native environment and endlessly crossbred with other varieties to produce something new.

When a landrace strain is removed from its indigenous environment (say, Pakistan) and forced to grow elsewhere (say, Mexico), it has to mature in different growing conditions. In response to those new growing conditions, the plant will exhibit new characteristics (e.g., smaller flowers, longer grow time, higher THC).

During that transition from indigenous environment to new growing conditions, some of the characteristics of the original plant will be lost. To get those characteristics back, you’d have to return the plant to its native environment.

Even then, the “purity” would be in question because you’ve grown a plant in a different location (Mexico) — producing slightly different characteristics — and then tried to return the seed to the place where its grandparent plant came from (Pakistan).

See how quickly things can get murky and diluted? It’s enough to make your head swim and your eyes go googly (even without taking a toke). That’s why we recommend not thinking about it too deeply.

It’s enough just to know that landrace strains exist. You don’t have to get intimate with the subject. Just give a polite ‘sup nod as you pass by on your way to the local dispensary for a dime bag of Yoda OG.

Should You Try A Landrace Strain?

Our answer to questions like these is usually a resounding, “Yes!”

There are a few times when we have to say no — like, should you make your own THC-O-Acetate or CO2 cannabis oil — but, for the most part, it never hurts to try.

That said, don’t cash in your life savings for the chance to puff a landrace strain. You’ll probably be disappointed. Modern strains are often better at producing the recreational or medicinal effects that you’re looking for.

Remember, landrace strains aren’t stronger, more potent, or better in some way. They’re just less diluted (genetically speaking) than other strains.

And, honestly, even that’s debatable given how much time has passed since the discovery of the original landrace strain and man’s tendency to crossbreed plants to make them grow “better.”

It’s good to know about landrace strains, but we seriously doubt they’re going to be the next big thing in cannabis consumption unless scientists find something in their DNA that cures cancer better than Rick Simpson oil or completely cures anxiety and depression.

You’re better off using organic, pesticide-free marijuana than spending your hard-earned money on something that claims to be a landrace strain.

Fun fact: all of the cannabis we have today traces back to a handful of landrace strains. Honest Marijuana’s experts tell you all about these rare strains.

Landrace Strains: Exploring the DNA of Modern Cannabis Varieties

Landrace strains are cannabis strains that are indigenous to a certain area of the world, which is coincidentally how some of the popular strains from today get their names.

Landrace strains are confusing to many, since there’s not nearly enough applicable cannabis education around the world.

These strains actually set the bar for growers and breeders around the world, but also give them a platform on which they can build upon.

Botanists believe that cannabis was first grown and domesticated in the Middle East several thousand years ago, mostly in the Hindu Kush area which is today on the borders of several countries.

Cannabis is now enjoyed by people on each and every continent, but of course, the bud we are consuming today isn’t the same that was first grown and domesticated in the Hindu Kush mountain region.

Cannabis strains have evolved and changed in several ways, and so today we have several genotypes of cannabis (sativa, indica, ruderalis and hybrids) and hundreds, if not thousands of phenotypes that are genotype and environment interactions combined.

As you can see from the image above, landrace strains can be considered as the dinosaurs of the cannabis world—they are old, super cool, and you just don’t get to see them in their original form anymore.

There’s been a lot of natural cross breeding and inbreeding with these old strains, resulting in landraces either losing quality genetics or their potency severely dropping due to poor agrarian habits of growers.

For some strains, such as G13, we’re not even sure if they were engineered and bred in a laboratory or if they are perhaps one of the true landraces that used to dominate vast regions.

Lots of actual landrace strains were brought to Europe and America in the 60’s and 70’s for commercial use, especially through the Hippie Trail which led across the Middle East and through central Europe, all the way to the UK and later US.

US soldiers also brought back tons of seeds from landrace strains harvested in East Asia, as the Vietnam War was raging at the same time the Hippie Trail was one of the main smuggling routes.

What are landrace strains?

Landrace strains are cannabis phenotypes that are unique and native for certain areas of the world.

Good examples of landrace strains are:

  • Lamb’s Bread from Jamaica
  • Hindu Kush from the Middle East
  • Swazi Gold from South-Central Africa.

These strains are pure sativas and indicas, which gives them a unique genotype—genetic constitution of each strain in particular.

When I say genetic constitution, I don’t mean just THC and CBD levels.

No, what I mean by genetic constitution is their ability to grow well in their natural habitats, and to continue doing so when crossed with other landraces, especially when put in different habitats.

Since cannabis can grow almost anywhere up to 50° latitude North and South, these strains can grow in a variety of habitats—warm, cold, humid, arid, you name it.

Of course, landrace strains that are used to living high up in the mountains with no humidity and warmth aren’t going to grow and perform well when put in a hot and humid environment.

This is one of the biggest flaws of landrace strains—They adapt extremely poorly to the environment.

They are praised, however, for their ability to grow extremely well in areas even remotely resembling their natural habitat.

Native areas of landrace strains

Landrace strains can live anywhere up to 50° latitude North and South, which is a pretty wide belt around the equator.

Let me put that into perspective for you:

The 50th parallel North, which marks the 50° of latitude North from the equator, passes through the following countries: France, Belgium, Czechia, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Mongolia, China, Canada and the UK.

It completely jumps over the continental US.

On the other side, the 50th parallel South pretty much swallows the whole continents of South America, Africa and Australia, even New Zealand as it passes below each of these.

Various cannabis strains that initially grew in specific parts of the world quickly spread through the rest of the world in the New Age, as Europeans colonized the world.

Landrace strains are still present in countries and areas they first came from, however in smaller numbers and with slightly diluted genetics.

There are 6 major areas that are characteristic for the landrace strains they gifted to the world.

Central Asia

This area is located around the Hindu Kush mountains, which famously birthed many fan-favorite indica strains.

The Hindu Kush mountains are on the border of today’s Afghanistan, Pakistan, northmost India and Tajikistan.

Hindu Kush, Afghani, and Mazar I Sharif are just some of the most popular landrace strains that come from this area, which is famous for its durable indica strains.

Southeast Asia

The southernmost part of India, Nepal, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam are all a part of this area known for the Thai landrace, which gave genetics to hundreds of today’s popular strains.

Cambodian, Nepalese and Thai landraces are pure sativa strains.

Strains such as Aceh, Luang Prabang and Thai are native to this area, and they tend to grow huge.

They gained in popularity under the name “Thai sticks” which were world-renowned for their strength.

Lately there was a lot of speculation that those sticks were heavily laced with opium, which isn’t inconceivable at all.

South-Central Africa

Strains that are native to this area have just recently gained in popularity.

It is possible that some of these genetics have been brought over to the Caribbean area during the colonization period.

Most popular strains from South-Central Africa are Swazi Gold, Rooibaard, Kilimanjaro, Malawi and Durban Poison, which is today one of the most popular pure sativa landrace strains.

North Africa and Middle East

Cannabis has been a part of the Arabian Culture for centuries, which can be seen in its presence in both North Africa and the Middle East.

This area is known for being the only other area in which indica landrace strains grow natively, although it is theoretically possible that they were brought there in the past.

Plants grown here are often used for kief extraction in order to make some of the best hash in the world.

Central America

Central American strains have been growing in popularity over the last several years as they are known to be durable in a multitude of weather conditions.

All strains found in this area are known to be very potent sativas that give their users energizing highs and make them happy and uplifted.

Some of the most popular strains found in Mexico and the rest of Central America are Lamb’s Bread and King’s Bread (which are local Jamaican strains) and Acapulco Gold—Mexico’s finest.

How Cannabis Became a Major Part of the Jamaican Culture

South America

Some of the most in-demand landrace strains are located in South America.

The reason why there’s such a high demand for these strains is because you have to risk a lot in order to get a couple of seeds.

South America hasn’t been really the safest and most politically stable place on Earth, which is why going around the jungles and mountains looking for cannabis might be a little tricky.

Luckily for us, strains like Colombian Gold, Santa Marta Gold, Punto Rojo, and Limon Verde are now widely available to the public because of fearless strain hunters and breeders that helped keep those genetics alive.

What are heirloom strains?

Another two areas that became known for landrace strains but didn’t have many native strains were Hawaii and California.

In the mid-20th century, growers in these two states grew some of the most amazing landrace plants.

Those plants were later cloned and preserved, due to their extreme potency and good genetics, which is why cannabis fans named them heirloom strains.

Basically, heirloom strains were cut from their mother strains, which also happen to be landrace strains, and during this process they got different names.

Here’s an example: Chocolate Thai came from Thai, but without any genetic crossing or inbreeding. Chocolate Thai came from pure breeding and taking extreme care of the plants.

Here’s one more people might be more familiar today:

Ghost OG may be the strongest strain there is according to recent THC testing, but it has the same genetics as OG Kush.

List of all landrace strains

These landrace indica strains are originally from the Asian continent:

  • Hindu Kush
  • Afghani
  • Lashkar Gah
  • Mazar I Sharif
  • Pakistani Chitral Kush
  • Mag Landrace
  • Pakistan Valley Kush
  • Pure Afghan

The following indica strains are known as heirloom strains, and they were primarily local to the Hawaiian islands:

  • Hawaiian Duckfoot
  • Puna Buddaz
  • Moloka’i Purpz

These landrace sativa strains are found in South and Central America:

  • Lamb’s Bread
  • King’s Bread
  • Punto Rojo
  • Acapulco Gold
  • Colombian Gold
  • Panama Red
  • Limon Verde

The following landrace sativa strains are native to Africa:

  • Swazi Gold
  • Red Congolese
  • Kilimanjaro
  • Durban Poison
  • Malawi
  • Rooibaard

Here’s a list of landrace sativa strains characteristic to Asia:

  • Aceh
  • Thai
  • Chocolate Thai
  • Kauai Electric
  • Luang Prabang
  • Altai (South-Central Russia/Mongolia)

Have in mind that there are sometimes several names for the same strain, which I didn’t take into account. These usually tend to be translations— for example Punto Rojo can be translated as Red Dot.

Think You Have the ‘Real’ Bubba Kush? Think Again

Alex Trpkovich

12 thoughts on “Landrace Strains: Exploring the DNA of Modern Cannabis Varieties”

Seeking Cambodian Red seeds

Hey Jack, this website might be a good place for you to look. However, I don’t think there is such a strain as Cambodian Red. There is Cambodian, which is a cross of Thai and Haze, and Panama Red which is an American landrace. There is also Red Congolese, which is African. I don’t know if any of those two might have been crossed to create Cambodian Red, but if there hasn’t been such a cross, feel free to experiment and let us know how it went.

Alex, thank you very much.

I can remember a strain called Columbian red. Back in the seventies before all the seed banks popped up. Might have been a cross with Panama red. But I remember it.

Red Colombian was all that was easily available in the late 1970’s. It was definitely a step down from the previous decade. Growing it is a waste of good dirt.

Ran across the best I ever smoked circa 1977-78. Had nothing like it since. Had a taste smell and look that has no comparison. It was seeded yet better than any hybrid I’ve tried this century. Supposedly a Hawaiian. Fat golden buds outside that expanded like balled up cellophane to reveal a vibrant green inside. Very sticky. A small ball rolled to the size of a large bb , two hits at most was all it took. Extremely hypnotizing and psychedelic and at first mildly paralyzing. No chem taste or smell but closer really good hash in aroma. Can you shed some light on what it may have been? I will continue to search this out forever. It was the all time absolute best!

Does anyone know what “Badri Heirloom landrace” is? I just got some seeds and now I want to know what to expect.

With respect, I have to say that I am confused by the concept of ‘no landraces can grow beyond the 50th parallel’. Do you mean to say that you will not find too many Narrow Leaf Drug Types beyond this Norther/Southern area? This is true due to the fact that the photo period will not allow for most versions of this variety of plant to finish beyond that Northern point, however, there are numerous landrace varieties that come from beyond the 50th parallel. Altai for example, which is from the Altai district in Siberia or other Siberian varieties (there are many different types) which consist primarily of broad leaf ruderalis offshoots but also some broad leaf drug type varieties that are used by the traditional people of these regions. Also, K. electric is from Kauai, Hawaii, not Asia. I do like the article though and think you’ve generally done a good job…really not trying to sound like a wise ass, just want to stimulate conversation and maybe I missed something? Saludos!

As far as Kush strains go, I heard that there is no such thing as Pure/flat out Kush. All Kush belongs to a certain type and there are 3 or 4 landrace heirloom strains of Kush is that true?

Actually I went to my dispensary today having recently watched a show on ppl tracking down certain very rare landrace strains so as with any good smoker you like being educated on everything medical cannabis.. well I was surprised to see that I actually bought a sugar wax called pakisitani valley and it was cool to realize I was smoking a strain that’s probly older older than human life but turning the strain into a cannabis concentrate wax that may have not been done by any other cultivators. Super cool to smoke sumthin that lived on this earth way before learning to properly give the plant exact specifications and amounts of water and nutrients that all good growers have their own way they have found works best for them that has proven to give them maximum output by trial n error or save a lot of money buy buying another’s recipe that grow medical grade marijuana isn’t unheard of.. everybody has their own preferences though and I wonder if “Oaksterdam University” in Oakland offers classes in learning about breeding strains and finding out which recipe of nutrients, water, and I’m sure growers have other gardening products that is true to the strains they grow.. that’s why I feel finding the best humidity, temperature, amount and what nutrients have tested n tested n then tested some more to make sure I find a great recipe that will work best for all around strains but certain strains will just grow poorly and have u questioning if u know anything.. I hear there are classes that have given a fairly simple way to grow your own medicine that they have done years of testing that master growers will have done enough testing to feel I’m going to surprise myself at growing my own real marijuana plant til it flowers and indoor growing and being able to control humidity to cut down on any molding, control the amount of sunlight, how often to water, what nutrients to use and how much and when. Knowing all that information and following it strictly has always left me with plants that produce quite a bit more flower than how much the plants flowered from that “all around recipe” that I used a few times.

It’s amazing that the golden age of cannabis is upon us. Thank you for providing a useful and educational read. Now “I” can be the snobby one at the dispensary. Lol, nah good just info to share. Thx again!

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making money off weed

Can You Actually Get Rich Selling Weed?

When you’re in high school and college, selling weed seems like a dream job on par with race car driver or pirate. The access to drugs ups your social cache, you make your own hours, and you can get high whenever you want. I assume that pretty much everyone between the ages of 15 and 25 has dealt drugs, or seriously considered it, or at least fantasized about the ways they would avoid the cops while raking in that sweet, sweet drug cash. I would sell only to trusted classmates and refuse to talk business over phone or computer except by way of an elaborate code that might fool cops and parents. All in all, a perfect plan.

So why doesn’t everyone cash in? Well, to begin with, even though the people I bought weed from as a teenager were far from cool or tough in the traditional sense, they clearly had some kind of savviness or street wisdom that I lacked. I have no idea where they were getting their drugs from, but I assume at some point dealers have to handle interactions with sketchy people who are either their suppliers or their suppliers’ suppliers. Every dorky kid slinging dime bags at the Jewish Community Center is only a few degrees of separation from a dude with a gun.

Nevertheless, even in hindsight, the weed merchants of my youth appear to have gotten off scot-free. As far as I know, no one I ever bought from got arrested, or even suspended. In my mind, selling weed would have enabled me to save more money than I did through my grunt labor at Panera Bread, Firehouse Subs, Pollo Tropical, and a litany of other fast food restaurants.

But were any of those dealers I knew making any real cash? With so many weed dealers roaming America’s campuses and 7-Eleven parking lots, is the market too crowded? And has the loosening of weed laws helped or hurt dealers looking to get rich? To find out, I hit up people in both the illegal and legal marijuana trades to see who—if anyone—was cashing in.

I started with a college student I’ll call Darren. The Manhattan native got into selling weed two years ago when he was behind on rent. He and a friend pooled together $120 each and bought an ounce from an old high school buddy, then went to Ace Hardware, bought some baggies, and started offering delivery for orders as low as $15.

Because Darren was wiling to haul ass around NYC for the tiniest amount of money, people started hitting him up slowly but surely. The fact that he doesn’t smoke made it easier to turn a profit. When he and his partner doubled their money, they went back and asked for two ounces, and managed to haggle for a discount. Two weeks later, word had spread to other dealers in the area.

“Now this is where people started figuring out who’s entered the market,” Darren says. “Word moves quick.” Another old acquaintance sent a text offering a quarter pound of weed, and a menu of choices.

“So like I was getting shit like Blue Dream, Cookie Monster, Girl Scout Cookies, Platinum Kush, Blackberry Kush, White Nightmare,” Darren says. “I was like, ‘What the fuck?’ And he was willing to put it on the arm, which means on credit.”

The new arrangement was that Darren had two weeks to pay back the price of the quarter pound, which was easy, he tells me, since he and his friend were the only dealers selling any exotic strands in their area. About a month or two after that, another old friend texted with an offer to front an entire pound, which was about the size of a bed pillow. The friend also didn’t care about when he would be paid back.

This sort of friendliness is incredible to me, but one of the big things I learned from Darren is that most of the weed world seems to operate around credit. As he explained, though, “Why would you run off with a pound that would sell for $2,000, when the potential in the long run is worth so much more?”

The second lesson I learned was that middle-tier dealers are making a lot of their profits doing flips, or moving big amounts of weed for tiny amounts of money to other dealers below them. It seems obvious in retrospect, but they’re basically selling the fact that they have a connection.

“There’s a guy I sell an ounce to for $200,” he tells me. “He’ll literally sell the ounce to some other dude for $220, and it’s an easy $20 for less than 30 minutes of his time, so he’ll come back and do it again right away. Sometimes it feels like you’re not even selling weed.”

Darren’s been dealing for three years now, and he’s moving a pound or two every week and a half. The guy above him, he says, is moving anywhere from 20 to 50 pounds a week, but still doesn’t consider himself a kingpin, or even big-time.

Darren has no desire to get to that level; he wants to pass his business onto someone else when he graduates from college. But if he kept with it, he might come to resemble a dude I’ll call Brian, who makes big bucks running drugs as a full-time business.

Brian claims he grosses half a million a year, which comes out to about $250,000 after payroll and other expenses.

Brian’s been in the weed business for about three years and has watched it become even more lucrative in that time. A pound used to cost $4,500, but now he can get one for $3,330 or $3,800. “Retail prices haven’t changed at all,” he says. “That means a lot of people are making good money now because wholesale has gone down so much.”

On paper, Brian makes next to nothing, about $15,000 a year. He has an LLC officially set up in Delaware, where taxes are lower, and now employs an uncurious accountant and a handful of deliverymen to do the schlepping he’s grown tired of doing himself.

Brian claims he grosses half a million a year this way, which comes out to about $250,000 after payroll and other expenses. Despite this, he doesn’t consider himself big-time, either.

“Big-time guys are out in California and have connects to multiple farms,” he insists. “They fly out here, arrange things, fly back and make sure everything is packaged correctly. They do that twice a year and make a million each time and are chilling in California the rest of the time.”

Brian tells me that he knew quite a few people who had been robbed, which highlighted one of the big downsides to selling weed illegally. The thought of that looming risk, coupled with his comment about big timers having connects with Cali, though, made me wonder about the other side of the weed business—the legitimate side. Was it easier to make money selling weed the legal way?

To answer that question, I called up Anthony Franciosi, the budding entrepreneur behind the Honest Marijuana Company, who moved to Colorado from New Jersey when he was 18 to become a marijuana farmer. As he learned to grow, he worked as an irrigation specialist and did restaurant work in the resort town of Steamboat Springs.

He got his start hawking extra buds from his harvest to a local dispensary. “I found that when I would give it to them, it was just disappearing, and they wanted even more of it,” he tells me. “If I had the foresight back then, maybe I would have put some money away and got some licenses.”

Instead, he found starting a farm of his own difficult. His first opportunity came in the form of a family friend who figured Franciosi was responsible enough to entrust with a $300,000 investment. The idea was to control the product from seed to sale, eventually opening a storefront. But it soon became apparent they didn’t have the funds to build that kind of operation.

“They weren’t really happy with the product they were gonna be able to come out with using that kind of money,” Franciosi says. “Basically that whole plan just flopped on its head.”

He found a second partner from New Jersey, however, someone with a bit more capital who was willing to spend $1.5 million to build a growing facility from scratch in a rural area. It’s set to open early next month, and it will employ five full-time employees as well as some auxiliary help, like trimmers. Those workers will earn around $45,000 a year, Franciosi says, which is a pretty good deal considering those jobs don’t require a college degree.

Overhead is a lot more complicated for on-the-books businesses like his; Franciosi not only has to pay his employees, he has to fork over a ton in taxes, without a lot of the write-offs that many federally legal businesses enjoy. Still, he remains optimistic.

Much like the illegal weed industry, the legal one seems to run on Monopoly money.

“I feel like the margins are shrinking, and that the people who got into the industry early were able to realize huge profits,” he says. “I think going forward it’s still a profitable business but practices just need to get better. I want to be a boutique facility—7,000 square feet as opposed to some in the state that are 200,000 square feet.” In the end, he hopes to produce 90 pounds per month in flower and have it retail for $200 an ounce in Denver and around $300 in the mountains.

Obviously, having a backer to the tune of $1.5 million helps. What I learned from talking to Franciosi is that much like the illegal weed industry, the legal one seems to run on Monopoly money. While it’s called “putting it on the arm” in the former, it’s called “venture capital” in the latter.

Eddie Miller is one of the guys who has a vested interest in seeing small-scale entrepreneurs like Franciosi succeed. The marketing professional, who built his first website in his parents’s Long Island basement at age 16, is one of the new breed of weed enthusiasts, almost evangelical in his passion for both kinds of green. He tells me he thinks it’s not a bad idea for kids to skip college and head to California or Colorado, and that he knows a guy who just invested $4.5 into the cultivation side and hopes to make it all back in the first year, and that the most profitable sector in pot is technology—which is why he’s the CEO of, a company that aims to sell infrastructure to fast-growing weed companies.

The unbridled optimism, though, made me a little weary. If everyone followed Miller’s example, wouldn’t all those new businesses and all that VC cash create a marijuana bubble? And what about when a couple of companies make it huge and become the Mercedes or Starbucks of weed?

When I asked would happen to the little guys, or to people who wanted to run boutique stores, Miller replied they would simply get eaten up by something like the Apple Store of pot.

I guess that makes sense. After all, there are huge companies like Anheuser Busch InBev that swallowed up many other businesses on the way to becoming global conglomerates. Just in 2015, ABIV bought the largest independent operation in California, Heineken bought 50 percent of Lagunitas, and MillerCoors purchased most of Saint Archer Brewing. It stands to reason that the economics of the weed industry will eventually resemble those of the beer market.

In Miller’s vision of the future, selling marijuana won’t be any different than selling DVDs or paper. Presumably that’ll be nice for him and others who have gotten in on the ground floor.

“Twenty years from now you won’t go into a store and ask for a gram of Khalifa Kush Bubble Hash, you’ll ask for a pack of it, or a box of it,” Miller says. “Everything will have been sized accordingly. The measurements by which it’s sold will have changed. As soon as there’s federal legalization, the tobacco, alcohol, and pharmaceutical industries will all get into cannabis.”

Add the two inevitabilities of legalization and consolidation together, and it seems unlikely that tomorrow’s teens will even be afforded the choice of becoming either becoming sandwich artists or dime-bag-slinging outlaws. Perhaps they’ll all be working at either the Starbucks of weed or actual Starbucks.

Franciosi, the grower, says that soon most of the weed on the market will be pharmaceutical grade, and that the people with 200,000 square-foot warehouses will be forced to use pesticides and other nasty chemicals to keep up. He hopes the people who want to deal with that will be motivated to buy his stuff, which he likened to small-batch whiskey. But he also thinks the black market will probably remain an option for the foreseeable future.

“The price for drug dealers is $50 a quarter, no matter what,” he says. “That’s kind of a joke here, though. It’s like, ‘Yeah, good job, you got some for $9 a gram, and this other guy paid $17,’ but you compare the two, and one’s some smushed-up stuff that looks like it’s been in your pocket. Still, the people that I know who are local and have been here for a long time in Colorado say the store prices can’t ever compete with the underground.”

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When I was growing up, drug dealers always seemed to have cushy jobs that were a license to print money. But what are the actual economics behind the legal and illegal sides of the marijuana industry?

Cannabis capitalism: who is making money in the marijuana industry?

The future looks green – but who benefits? Illustration: George Wylesol/The Guardian

The future looks green – but who benefits? Illustration: George Wylesol/The Guardian

Marginalized groups that championed legalization struggle to compete with corporate refugees jumping on the bandwagon

Last modified on Thu 4 Oct 2018 01.28 BST

T wo hours north of San Francisco, in Mendocino county, orderly roadside vineyards give way to the rugged forests and misty coast of the Emerald Triangle, America’s most celebrated marijuana growing region. In June, more than 300 cannabis industry insiders gathered there for a weekend of bonfires, starlit hikes and river swims.

It was a lovely setting to discuss why none of them seemed to be making money.

Americans spend roughly $40bn annually on legal and illegal marijuana. Their appetite is almost certain to increase as it becomes easier to legally access the drug and the industry continues to promote pot as compatible with a healthy adult life.

In California alone, tens of thousands of farms grow the plant, which is increasingly processed into gorgeously packaged vape pens and edibles marketed to customers outside the core stoner demographic of young men. Today, seniors are the fastest-growing group of marijuana users in the US.

The future looks very green indeed. But since New Year’s Day 2014, when Colorado opened the world’s first regulated recreational marijuana market, the business climate for weed companies has proven immensely difficult for a range of reasons, including high taxes, rapidly changing regulations and a still robust illicit market.

Besides the business challenges, America’s legal marijuana industry also has to reckon with an unavoidable moral dimension. The US has been engaged in a “war on drugs” since Richard Nixon declared it in 1971. While white Americans use marijuana and other drugs at roughly equal rates to African Americans and Latinos, in virtually every respect, racial minorities have been disproportionately incarcerated and otherwise punished for involvement with drugs, including selling marijuana.

In addition, marginalized groups – Aids patients, disabled people, veterans – who championed legalization when it was far riskier to do so now find themselves ill-equipped to compete against well-capitalized corporate refugees looking to jump on the bandwagon.

One company, Acreage Holdings, which closed on $119m in investment capital this summer, has enlisted the former Republican speaker of the House John Boehner to help it navigate the market. Boehner has never smoked pot – “he hasn’t felt the need or inclination”, according to a spokesperson – and he declared himself “unalterably opposed” to legalization when he was in office.

With legal marijuana now one of the country’s fastest-growing industries, who profits is as much of a civil rights question as who gets punished.

The industry’s moral challenge is to ensure the groups who have suffered the most under the drug war can participate in the green rush and enjoy the spoils of legalization.

‘A classic story of gentrification’

The story of Amber Senter, a businesswoman and activist who attended the weekend campout, dubbed Meadow Lands, goes some way to explain why racial equity will be as difficult to achieve in cannabis as it is in the rest of American life.

Senter moved to Oakland, California, in 2014. A coast guard veteran with a background in corporate marketing and graphic design, she worked as an executive at Magnolia, a dispensary, and became a prominent advocate for women of color like herself in the industry.

‘If Amber Senter can’t make it, who can?’ Illustration: George Wylesol/The Guardian

Oakland, the birthplace of the Black Panther party, is known for radical politics and racial tensions. It was among the first US jurisdictions to recognize legalization as an economic opportunity and has sanctioned dispensaries since 2004. More recently, it became one of the first places to create an “equity program” to support marijuana entrepreneurs who were locked up for pot-related offenses or who come from neighborhoods considered disproportionately affected by the “war on drugs”.

Senter didn’t qualify for an equity permit. But in November 2017, her business partner signed a memorandum of understanding to open a dispensary with Marshall Crosby, a personal trainer in his 50s who did qualify.

A native of Oakland’s impoverished east side, Crosby has lived a hard life. One of eight children, he said he had several bullets lodged in him and had served stints in jail. “I became a statistic in the drug life a long time ago,” he said.

On 31 January, Crosby had some good luck. Oakland put the names of a few dozen equity hopefuls into a lottery and pulled names to see who could pursue a dispensary license. Crosby was among the four winners.

A few weeks later he wrote to Senter’s partner: “I have decided not to work with you. Went another route.” Rather than work with his local partners, Crosby had decided to partner with Have a Heart, a dispensary chain based 800 miles away in Seattle eyeing expansion in Oakland.

In an interview, Crosby said he felt abandoned after he had signed the memorandum with Senter’s partner. And he felt an affinity for Have a Heart’s COO, Ed Mitchell, who grew up in another rough part of the Bay Area. With Have a Heart, Mitchell said Crosby would also receive a payment of an undisclosed amount once they secured the license.

Oakland’s equity program had been laboriously developed over years to maximize not just jobs for Oaklanders but local ownership of marijuana companies. But the policy didn’t stop Crosby from partnering with an outside company.

“It’s a classic story of gentrification,” Senter said following Meadow Lands. The dispensary chain was “taking advantage of opportunities that were not made for them”. In addition to boxing her out, the new store, she said, would compete with, and potentially undersell, existing locally owned dispensaries.

Have a Heart said it would hire Oaklanders for 90% of its jobs in the city and would invest in cleaning up the area of Chinatown where it hopes to open. “We believed Oakland was a place where we could really do some good,” Mitchell said.

Even if this is true, the situation anticipates similar deals which may reward a few local individuals but extract profit out of the city for large corporations.

“Someone was just able to swoop in and sabotage fair business dealings; that’s wrong,” said Anne Kelson, an Oakland cannabis attorney who is not professionally involved in the case.

Kelson said the incident had shaken Oakland’s cannabis community. “More than one business operator has come to me and said: ‘If Amber Senter can’t make it, who can?’”

Across the bay in San Francisco, another ambitious dispensary chain, MedMen, is pursuing partnerships with equity applicants. Compared with less sophisticated operators, MedMen brings “a certain guarantee of execution”, its spokesman, Daniel Yi, said. “At the end of the day a business that’s not successful wouldn’t help anyone.”

Marijuana farming in California

Most attendees at the campout in June belonged to the industry’s craft cohort. Many of them have been professionally involved in cannabis for decades.

Marijuana farming in California has never been easy. Those who succeed are skilled, cunning and well-versed in the law.

Today they’ve applied their intelligence to the endless intricacies of the California market. It both conforms to and departs from stoner stereotypes that most conversations at Meadow Lands dug into riveting topics like zoning variances, building materials and water use rules.

Of the state legalization experiments, California is, by far, the largest and most complex. For growers who operated in California’s gray and illegal markets and now want to transition into the legal market, the economics can be brutal. In the illegal market, an Emerald Triangle farmer might have sold a pound for $3,000 tax-free. Now the price is more like $600, before taxes and compliance-related costs.

“I’ve never seen a craft cannabis brand work out, because it’s not cost effective,” Hilary Bricken, a Los Angeles cannabis attorney with Harris Bricken said.

“Presently, no one in legalized marijuana is getting rich,” Steve Schain, a senior attorney with the cannabis-focused Hoban Law Group, said.

Marginalized groups that championed legalization struggle to compete with corporate refugees jumping on the bandwagon<br>


indoor bonsai seeds

Tree Seeds suitable for Bonsai

Please note that there is NO such thing as Bonsai Tree Seeds. Firms that claim to sell ‘Bonsai Tree Seeds’ are misleading to say the least. If you plant one of these so called ‘Bonsai seeds’, and if they germinate, they will grow into ordinary trees. Bonsai are created from trees and shrubs by shaping, pruning and wiring. They do not just happen. Certain species of trees and shrubs are suitable for bonsai – such as Japanese Maples and Pines. Many other species are also suitable.

As specialist Japanese Maple growers for over thirty years, we have a vast stock of maples and other exotic Japanese trees, which we use for harvesting seed and for propagating our own plants. The seeds we sell for bonsai are mainly Japanese Maples (Acers) as they are one of the most popular. We harvest our Maple seeds in the Autumn and we usually have them ready for sale around November/December. No need to contact us until then as we will have no further information.

Please note:– We do not ship seeds outside the EC as many countries such as Australia and USA do not allow seeds into their country for plant health reasons.

Instructions for storing and sowing the seeds.

After harvesting our seeds, we store them in sealed plastic bags ready to sell.
However, the seeds which we use for sowing are not stored but sown immediately into seed trays, using a general purpose compost.

The seed trays are then covered with a sheet of glass or plastic to overwinter in the open. The alternate freezing and thawing which follows in the winter will break the dormancy of the seed and encourage them to germinate in the Spring. This process is what is called ‘stratification’.

The other way of germinating Maple seed is to store them in sealed plastic bags with a bit of moisture in the bag, and leave the bag in the refrigerator till late Winter or very early Spring. In the early Spring, sow the seeds in seed trays and they should germinate fairly readily.

When the seeds germinate, leave them in the seed trays till they have grown the first pair of leaves. When the leaves have hardened slightly, that is the best time to prick them out for planting in individual pots.

We find that sowing the seeds immediately after they have been collected gives the best results.

Tree Seeds suitable for Bonsai Please note that there is NO such thing as Bonsai Tree Seeds. Firms that claim to sell ‘Bonsai Tree Seeds’ are misleading to say the least. If you plant one of

How to grow a bonsai

The oriental art of Bonsai is very well known in the west. It’s surrounded by mystery and generates curiosity at first sight. Sometimes this interest just goes away with time, but in some cases, people like to dig deeper and get to know more about this beautiful miniature gardening technique.

But to grow a bonsai it’s not only about gardening. It also has a therapeutic value, plus enables patience and fortitude and it’s a great activity for relaxing purposes. A bonsai can be with you until the end of your days. In fact, ancient Chinese believed that those who could take care of a miniature tree for a long time got eternity granted for their soul. For them a tree could be the connection between the holy and the human, between heaven and earth.

The first records of people growing bonsais are located in China. However the Japanese are responsible for developing and improving the art as we know it today. Contrary to what most people believe, bonsais are not genetically dwarfed plants, they are kept small by a series of techniques and steps that, if done properly, would allow the tree to live as long as their original specie. Any tree can be grown as a bonsai. However you have to think about many details before starting.

Before you start

Before asking yourself how to grow a bonsai, you should consider which specie you would like to plant and also the conditions of your home, surrounding environment and climate. There are a few options that could be good for starters, such as the Chinese elm and the Japanese black pine. Keep also in mind that any tree can become a bonsai, but details like leave size should be thought about. A lot of people prefer trees with small leaves, because are easier to model.

There’s also another consideration you should make when planning to grow a bonsai: There are many ways to do it. You could star from zero, which means buying seeds from a shop or picking them up near the trees around your home or in the wild. You could also find or buy a young plant, called a “prebonsai”, which consist of a germinated tree in early stage. That way the whole process becomes faster, even though remember: to grow a bonsai is also an exercise of patience. The last option may be the easiest but also the least educational: that is to buy a full grown bonsai. In that case you would only have to do caring activities. It’s important to know: There are no “bonsai seeds”. If someone offers you such a product he’s either lying or don’t know much about bonsai. The seed which a bonsai comes from is just a regular tree seed, the process of making a bonsai comes later, after it is germinated.

Cascade Style Bonsai

Bonsais are divided by its size: from the smaller ones, called Keshitsubo, to some of the bigger ones called Hachi-uye. There are also different styles of bonsais: formal and informal upright, slant, cascade, shari, forest, raft, and many more.

The cheapest and nicest ways

To grow a bonsai from seed is a slow and hard working process but is also the most rewarding way to do it. It may take years and you may fail at first, but as long as you keep trying and feel passionate about it you’ll be amazed by the results.

If you’re a starter then you’ll probably don’t want to wait that long for results. What most people recommend is to buy a prebonsai, or find one in a forest near your home (remember that a prebonsai is nothing more than a tree in its early stages). In case you decide the second option there are many considerations. You need permission from the landowner to do it. Also you have to be very careful on not damaging the roots when digging. There is also a specific time of the year to do it: the first weeks of spring.

When you grow a bonsai from seed you should do the planting on autumn, so they start germinating in spring. It’s always better to select trees that can adapt easily to the climate of the place you live; that way it’ll work in our favor.

Pruning and wiring

Pruning is one of the ways to create and shape a bonsai. It’s very important not to try to change too much the original silhouette of the tree. Pruning must be constant (it’s necessary not only to shape but as part of the caring process) and you should have regular spots for it on the tree, to achieve a beautiful and nice bonsai with strong and numerous leaves.

On the other hand, wiring has also been a useful option to grow a bonsai. Shaping angles, generating branches, all this can be done by wiring. However it’s very important to do it the right way, because it can be a disaster if not done properly.

There are more techniques that can be applied when you grow a bonsai. You can defoliate the tree to obtain smaller leaves, or to balance it shape. There’s also a well known technique called Jin & Shari which consist in making a bonsai look old and mature by creating areas of deadwood on the tree, just like happens in nature sometimes.

This site has a section dedicated only to bonsai training.

Bonsai caring

Keeping strong and healthy your miniature tree is all about good care. If you decide to grow a bonsai this is the last step of the way and, if you do it right, the most rewarding one. It’s also the longest procedure because it could last most of your life and even after, if you decide to leave it to your descendants. In Japan, families inherit bonsais from one generation to another.

As we said before, there are many types of bonsais as there are trees species, so the way you take care of them may differ from one to another. For the watering process you should constantly check the soil of the bonsai and keep it damp and when it gets slightly dry then water it again. It’s very important not to flood it.

Decorative Homemade Bonsai

Find a nice place for your bonsai. Some miniature trees need at least some direct sunlight on them, others not too much. Check the humidity and temperature of the room where you’re planning to put your bonsai and be aware of the needs of the tree of your choice.

When you grow a bonsai, there’ll be a point when you’ll have to think about taking it from an old pot to a new one, it’s called repot. Different species of trees means different repot periods, from 2 to 5 years.

Fertilization is also a convenient topic to know. There are many bonsai friendly fertilizers but you can use regular ones as well, but be very careful not to use too much though. Most commercial brands have instructions on how to use them.

Remember to always check for uninvited guest on your bonsai. Your miniature tree is no different from the original one when it comes to fungus, pests or diseases.

This site has a section dedicated only to bonsai caring.

Start to grow a bonsai now

We’ve been talking about how to grow a bonsai for a while now. So, if you still here that means you’re interested in knowing more about it. I’m going to recommend you what to do with the information I gave you and how to know more and become a pro.

You cannot start to grow a bonsai only with what’s written on this page. You need to go deeper. You can search on the Internet however this might be a double-edged sword. There’s way too much information around. Some of it may be useful but there’s a lot of BS out there.

If you’re thinking about buying a bonsai, you can visit our store here. We have all types of bonsai, kits for starters and we also recommend the best tree species for begginers. Take a tour on our online store.

After a very long research we also recommend two books on bonsai. Both have plenty of step by step and specific information about how to grow a bonsai. They also have plenty of graphics and were made by experienced miniature gardeners.

The best book we know on bonsai is The Bonsai Book by Dan Barton. This is one of the most famous works on the subject and without a doubt the most complete. Everything you need to know is there, and when we say everything we really mean it. You can read our review about The Bonsai Book by Dan Barton here or buy it directly on Amazon. This is the only book about bonsai on which all reviews give the top qualification of five stars, so our opinion that this is an amazing work is shared by many.

Update: We’ve been informed that The Bonsai Book by Dan Barton is not available on Amazon any more. You can only buy the used version. So, in case you don’t want to buy an old used book we are also recommending The Complete Book of Bonsai by Harry Tomlinson. It is as complete as The Bonsai Book and also very well explained. It has amazing graphic material with plenty of beautiful pictures and images. The Complete Book of Bonsai will provide you with all the info you need to know on bonsai, from its principles, evolution and origins to its styles, techniques and species. Everything you need to know about growing bonsai is there. We’ve been recommending 101 Essential Tips on Bonsai by the same author for a long time. You can read our review on The Complete Book of Bonsai by Harry Tomlinson here or buy it directly on Amazon.

On the right column of this site you can find more reviews on bonsai books and products.

How to grow a bonsai. We tell you everything you need to know to start growing your own bonsai today: techniques, styles, tools, online stores, etc.


buy alaskan thunder weed in germany

Alaskan Thunder

The smell from ATF is amazing and deserves an award on its own; it reminds me of frosty pine or menthol… with a fresh lemon scent.

To the naked eye, the buds are all very nicely grown except for the one small bud could use slightly better trimming. Other than that, Alaskan Thunder marijuana reminded me most of Jack Herer (taste, smoke, aroma) with a more intense (cerebral) head high. This strain is definitely one of my top 3 favorite Sativas of all-time.

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The Alaskan Thunder (ATF for short) strain originates from the Matanuska Valley in Alaska and its Sativa genetics are somewhat of a mystery. Being a Sativa, this strain really only affects your head and is a popular choice of medication for medical marijuana patients suffering from chronic migraines, PTSD, sleep disorders, and more.

The Alaskan Thunder strain is known for its ability to create a soaring, cerebral head-high. It can definitely take your mind for a ride, so you may want to start with low quantities (1-2 puffs) if you are a first-time patient who is afraid of experiencing any sort of paranoia.

Alaskan Thunder should be considered a morning or day-time Sativa due to its peaceful, uplifting nature. This strain always makes me feel more talkative than normal, and even more intellectual at times, due to its deep, thought-inducing high.

Alaskan Thunder The smell from ATF is amazing and deserves an award on its own; it reminds me of frosty pine or menthol… with a fresh lemon scent. To the naked eye, the buds are all very

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lemon zest strain

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Lemon Zest

Taste & Smell

  • Fruity
  • Sour


  • Energetic
  • Focused
  • Giggly
  • Happy

Pairs Well With

  • Amusement Parks
  • Arts & Crafts
  • Housework
  • Exercising
  • Exploring Nature
  • Going Out
  • Social Events
  • Studying
  • Yard Games

About this Hybrid Strain

Lemon Zest, also called “Lemon Butter,” is a hybrid cannabis strain that reviewers say brings an elevating energy and focus, with the euphoric high. They share that after some time of inspired creativity and action, giggles often ensue.

Strong lemon and citrus aromas come through immediately on the nose at first smell. Powerful lemon and citrus flavors dominate the flavor profile, with a creamy taste and herbal notes on the exhale.

When you first see the buds they appear golden yellow from the yellow trichome frost and bursts of orange pistils.

Wolf Genetics breeders created this strain with Myrcene and Caryophyllene abundant at the top of the terpene profile. They’ve kept its lineage a secret so far, but we look forward to more experiences with Lemon Zest just the same.

Lab Data

Cannabinoid Lab Data

Cannabinoid Amount
THC: 18.18%
Terpene Lab Data

Terpene Amount
Beta Myrcene: 0.515%
Beta Caryophyllene: 0.174%


Frequently Asked Questions About Lemon Zest

Lemon Zest is a hybrid cannabis strain with energizing, sativa associated effects, according to consumers.

What does Lemon Zest mean?

The Lemon Zest name comes from the powerful citrus aroma and flavor. The strain also has a creamy taste and is also known as Lemon Butter.

Where does Lemon Zest come from?

Lemon Zest comes from Wolf Genetics, although its lineage remains a secret.

What does Lemon Zest smell like?

Lemon Zest smells like lemons and citrus.

What does Lemon Zest taste like?

Lemon Zest tastes like lemon and citrus with a creaminess and herbal aftertaste.

What color does Lemon Zest have?

The Lemon Zest strain has a golden yellow appearance from the thick yellow trichome layering covering the buds.

What effects does Lemon Zest have?

Consumers say Lemon Zest is a mood elevating and energizing strain, that brings focus, often followed giggles.

Is Lemon Zest an Indica, Sativa or Hybrid?

Lemon Zest is a hybrid cannabis strain with sativa characteristics.

Lemon Zest, also called &quot;Lemon Butter,&quot; is a hybrid cannabis strain that reviewers say brings an elevating energy and focus, with the euphoric high. They share that after some time of inspired creativity and action, giggles often ensue. Strong lemon and citrus aromas come through immediately…


runts strain

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Runts strain

It’s pretty decent for a 50/50 hybrid..I’m more into the heavy Indica’s

Idk WHO wrote this the first paragraph of this but u made an error somewhere , look at what is written there at the beginning , its says 70% Indica 30% Sativa then u go down an it says an evenly balanced Hybrid 50% Indica 50% Sativa , so my question is WHICH is it ? Plz get back to me asap ty

Most of us know that anything crossed with Zkittlez should turn out well. However the Runtz turned out pretty potent and always have had a good taste with effects that last. This time I went with the Mango version also available on the menu and have never been disappointed with either strain

GAS FLAVORS! Delicious strain with a great and fast acting buzz 🔥

Amazing high. Relaxes the body and makes the mind go wild. Feels like you ate an edible. Makes you happy even though you have to try hard to fight off the sleep.

Very thick green creamy smoke. Hashy exhale. I’d put this strain on high gas alert. Very stoned, very relaxed, heavy eyed, I see this being a great cure for headaches and migraines. Due to its dark purple and green colors and green smoke I’m getting a vibe of sailing on a stormy ocean fighting a kraken or something. This is a good relaxing, day dreaming, overall positive experience. Glad I picked this up.

The first time I tried Runtz it was organic and I was not impressed. However, this time and batch around I am definitely FEELING THIS 😜🤣🙌 It’s a premium quality and I taste the difference. It has a fruity taste and its sweet to smoke. I think i will be adding this on my top ten list. The high is nice and I am a stoner who smokes over 5 blunts a day easily, and that is a day that I work. If I’m home all day it is way more. It gives a nice head high and leaves a sweet taste in my mouth. 🎯😜🌬🍃🍁💨

I know that Everytime I smoke, it’ll only take a few hits and I’m where I need to be. I can function and focus with a positive and happy attitude.

Runtz is an evenly balanced hybrid strain (50% indica/50% sativa) created through a delicious cross of the infamous Zkittlez X Gelato strains. Named for the iconic candy, Runtz brings on a super delicious fruity flavor with tropical citrus and sour berries galore. The aroma is very similar, altho…


does nc have medical weed


North Carolina

Is weed legal in North Carolina?

No. Both medical and adult-use marijuana are illegal in the state. CBD extract with less than 0.9% THC and at least 5% CBD by weight is allowed for patients with intractable epilepsy. It’s only legal to possess it in the state; patients and caregivers must obtain it outside state lines.

A first offense of possession of 0.5 ounce of cannabis or less or 0.2 ounce of hash or less is a Class C misdemeanor , which is punishable by a maximum fine of $200. Larger amounts and subsequent offenses may carry more severe penalties.

Legislative history

Gov. Pat McCrory signed HB 1220 , the Epilepsy Alternative Treatment Act, into law in 2014. HB 1220 granted access to low-THC hemp extract to patients diagnosed with intractable epilepsy.

In July 2015, HB 1220 was amended by HB 766 , which increased the allowed amount of THC from 0.3% to 0.9% and decreased the required CBD amount from 10% to 5%. It also expanded the number of qualified physicians, increased the number of certified hospitals, and removed the requirement that patients be children.

Where is it safe to purchase?

North Carolina does not have a state-regulated supply chain or any other state-sponsored method of obtaining hemp oil extract. Caregivers must purchase hemp oil extract in a state that offers reciprocity.

Where is it safe to consume?

North Carolina has not placed limits or restrictions on patient consumption.


The DHHS forbids the cultivation of cannabis or the production of hemp oil extract for any reason within North Carolina.

Medical CBD program overview

North Carolina allows patients with intractable epilepsy and their caregivers to possess and consume CBD extract with less than 0.9% THC and at least 5% CBD by weight. The patients must be diagnosed by and have a written statement from a state-licensed, board certified neurologist who is affiliated with the neurology department of a state-licensed hospital.

The North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) is responsible for regulatory oversight of the Epilepsy Alternative Treatment Act program, and for enrolling registered patients and caregivers in the program. Patients must appoint a caregiver to obtain the extract. No registry card is required for patients. There is no minimum age for patients who can participate in the program, though caregivers must be at least 18 years old.

Caregiver requirements

Though the law no longer requires that patients be children, it specifies that only caregivers are allowed to possess CBD extract. Caregivers must be at least 18 years old and must be a permanent resident of North Carolina. Only a parent, legal guardian, or custodian of a person with intractable epilepsy is eligible to be a registered caregiver.

Once all materials have been submitted, and the application has been processed, caregivers will receive a letter from the DHHS authorizing their approval. Caregivers must carry this letter with them when in possession of hemp extract within North Carolina. They must also carry or keep near the CBD extract a certificate of analysis for the extract that shows it meets the state’s standards.

Application process:

  1. Obtain a written statement from a state-licensed neurologist affiliated with a state-licensed hospital.
  2. Submit a valid North Carolina ID card or driver’s license to show proof of age and residency.
  3. Complete and submit a written caregiver’s application .


There is currently no lab testing required by the state.


How long before medical marijuana is legal in North Carolina?

While we can’t predict the future, we do know that North Carolinans can’t petition to get an medical marijuana initiative added to the ballot. Any path to legalize marijuana would have to go through the state legislature.

What would it take to make weed legal in NC?

Unlike in other states that have legalized cannabis for medical or recreational use, North Carolina residents can’t petition to get an medical marijuana initiative added to the ballot.

What agency in NC enforces marijuana laws?

Marijuana enforcement happens at the local level. City police officers or county sheriffs typically make marijuana arrests though state highway patrol officers (troopers) may also arrest people suspected of possession, consumption, or trafficking. After arrest, trials usually take place in local courts.

What are the laws on the cultivation of marijuana in North Carolina?

Marijuana is illegal in North Carolina so cultivation is also illegal. Farmers can grow hemp with less than 0.3% THC if they are licensed by the state Department of Agriculture.

The information contained in this site is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal advice.

This page was last updated November 11, 2020.

View the cannabis & CBD laws & regulations for North Carolina.

Lawmakers Mull Marijuana Legalization

Home » Blog » Lawmakers Mull Marijuana Legalization

UPDATE: As of August 2020, Senate Bill 58, which increases the amount of marijuana someone can legally carry for personal use and expunges records of those with certain marijuana convictions, is stalled. The bill was introduced on February 14, 2019 with one writer and eight co-sponsors, but since that point, no forward movement has occurred.

In February 2019, Senator Paul Lowe (D-Forsyth) reintroduced a measure in the State Senate which would allow people to possess up to three ounces of cannabis legal for their own personal use. Last year’s version, which lawmakers did not approve, would have allowed up to four ounces. Nevertheless, this latest bill would significantly alter the legal landscape for Raleigh drug possession attorneys.

What is Senate Bill 58?

This measure is something of a compromise. SB 58 enhances the charges for possession of more than three ounces to a Class 1 misdemeanor, punishable by a maximum 120-day jail sentence and a discretionary fine. Furthermore, the bill increases the weight of cannabis a person can carry from 1.5 ounces to one pound before it is considered a Class 1 felony. A conviction on this count could result in imprisonment for up to five months.

Currently, possession of up to 1.5 ounces is a Class 3 misdemeanor, which carries a maximum 20-day jail sentence and a fine of no more than $200. Possession of 1.5 to 16 ounces is a Class 1 felony offense.

SB 58 is a significant departure from current North Carolina law. The Tarheel State has some of the strictest marijuana laws in the country. Recreational marijuana is completely illegal, and medical marijuana is only available to patients with epilepsey. Even then, these patients must use a special grade of marijuana with a low THC and high CBD content.

Would SB 58 Help Individuals Who Have Marijuana Possession Convictions on Their Records?

Maybe. If the prior conviction was for simple possession under three ounces and there were no aggravating circumstances, SB 58 authorizes a Raleigh drug possession attorney to file an expungement petition with the court that handed down the conviction. If the District Attorney and probation officer agree to the petition, or at least do not contest it, the judge will probably grant it.

Many people with marijuana and other convictions experience hardship when looking for a good job, obtaining student aid, finding a good place to live, and in other situations.

Lawmakers may yet relax the marijuana laws in North Carolina. For a free consultation with an experienced Raleigh drug possession attorney, contact Sandman, Finn & Fitzhugh, Attorneys at Law. Fill out the form below or call us at (919) 887-8040.

A new Senate bill allows possession of up to three ounces of marijuana. If you need help with a current case, call our Raleigh drug possession attorneys.