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marley genetics

Increased persistent Na+ current contributes to seizure in the slamdance bang-sensitive Drosophila mutant

Affiliation

  • 1 Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
  • PMID: 21451059
  • PMCID: PMC3129721
  • DOI: 10.1152/jn.00808.2010

Free PMC article

Increased persistent Na+ current contributes to seizure in the slamdance bang-sensitive Drosophila mutant

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Authors

Affiliation

  • 1 Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
  • PMID: 21451059
  • PMCID: PMC3129721
  • DOI: 10.1152/jn.00808.2010

Abstract

There is clinical need to extend the understanding of epilepsy and to find novel approaches to treat this condition. Bang-sensitive (bs) Drosophila mutants, which exhibit reduced thresholds for seizure, offer an attractive possibility to combine tractable genetics, electrophysiology, and high-throughput screening. However, despite these advantages, the precise electrophysiological aberrations that contribute to seizure have not been identified in any bs mutant. Because of this, the applicability of Drosophila as a preclinical model has not yet been established. In this study, we show that electroshock of bs slamdance (sda) larvae was sufficient to induce extended seizure-like episodes. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from identified motoneurons (termed aCC and RP2) showed synaptic currents that were greatly increased in both amplitude and duration. Current-clamp recordings indicated that these inputs produced longer-lived plateau depolarizations and increased action potential firing in these cells. An analysis of voltage-gated currents in these motoneurons, in both first and third instar larvae, revealed a consistently increased persistent Na(+) current (I(Nap)) and a reduced Ca(2+) current in first instar larvae, which appeared normal in older third instar larvae. That increased I(Nap) may contribute to seizure-like activity is indicated by the observation that feeding sda larvae the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, which was sufficient to reduce I(Nap), rescued both seizure-like episode duration and synaptic excitation of motoneurons. In contrast, feeding of either anemone toxin, a drug that preferentially increases I(Nap), or phenytoin to wild-type larvae was sufficient to induce a bs behavioral phenotype. Finally, we show that feeding of phenytoin to gravid sda females was sufficient to both reduce I(Nap) and synaptic currents and rescue the bs phenotype in their larval progeny, indicating that a heightened predisposition to seizure may arise as a consequence of abnormal embryonic neural development.

Figures

Both slamdance ( sda )…

Both slamdance ( sda ) adult flies and larvae display a bang-sensitive (bs)…

Endogenous synaptic drive elicits greater…

Endogenous synaptic drive elicits greater excitation in sda motoneurons. A and B :…

The persistent voltage-gated Na +…

The persistent voltage-gated Na + current ( I Nap ) is elevated in…

Phenytoin (PHY) both reduces I…

Phenytoin (PHY) both reduces I Nap in motoneurons and rescues seizure. A :…

PHY rescues the SRC amplitude…

PHY rescues the SRC amplitude and duration in sda larvae. A : SRC…

Seizure severity correlates with the…

Seizure severity correlates with the ratio of I Nap to I Nat .…

Maternal feeding of PHY reduces…

Maternal feeding of PHY reduces the ratio of I Nap to I Nat…

There is clinical need to extend the understanding of epilepsy and to find novel approaches to treat this condition. Bang-sensitive (bs) Drosophila mutants, which exhibit reduced thresholds for seizure, offer an attractive possibility to combine tractable genetics, electrophysiology, and high-throug …

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gorilla glue 5

Potlander

Strain Review: Gorilla Glue #5 by Devil’s Lettuce

Strain: Gorilla Glue #5
Parentage: Gorilla Glue #1 x Gorilla Glue #4
Breeder: GG Strains
Grower: Devil’s Lettuce
Cannabinoid Content: 21.2% THC

If we’re going to talk about Gorilla Glue #5, then we need to first talk about its proud parent Gorilla Glue #4. And to do that, we need to introduce a grower by the name of Josey Whales, who is widely recognized as the steward of modern cannabis’s happiest accident.

One morning, Whales entered his flower room to discover male pollen sacks growing from a female Chem’s Sister plant. He noticed that a nearby Sour Dubb plant had been dusted with pollen, and when the crop came down, he kept the seeds.

A year later, he tested out the happenstance genetics, but like their hermaphroditic father, the female offspring also produced male pollen sacks and an entire stadium grow grew to seed.

“I was pissed,” writes Whales in a widely quoted forum post. “I got rid of all of it to a friend, marrdog.”

Cutting his losses, Whales wanted nothing more to do with the experimental cross.

Luckily, his buddy Marrdog felt differently and took a gamble on the seeds, and what resulted changed cannabis forever: out of the four seeds germinated, three were viable females; and the plant labeled #4 was the “clear winner,” as Whales puts it.

So they kept the strain around, growing larger and larger batches of #4 clones. Subsequently, Gorilla Glue, named for the strain’s tendency to gunk up scissors during harvest, was born.

And the infant had legs, captivating the cannabis community overnight—winning numerous cup competitions and accruing an equally numerous collection of coveted industry accolades.

What’s more, Gorilla Glue #4 lived up to the hype. Medical patients were won over by the strain’s ability to treat pain without necessitating a nap. Connoisseurs flocked to the huge diesel aroma and potent-but-balanced hybrid high.

On the burgeoning dispensary circuit, a shop’s inventory wasn’t complete until a jar of GG4 held a spot on the shelf.

But the hype outpaced availability, and soon GG4 knockoffs and opportunistic crosses diluted the name in a hasty cash grab.

Nowadays, hundreds if not thousands of strains claiming a Glue lineage pepper the market. Some are great, others forgettable, and still more may have nothing to do with the original genetics.

The overall impact of iffy reliability was a reduced consumer confidence in Glue strains—a side effect of popularity that Whales and his Nevada-based breeding company GG Strains hope to eliminate with a more controlled approach to the release of their new and future strains, like Gorilla Glue #5.

A cross of GG1 and GG4, GG5 most resembles the family’s Sour Dubb heritage, while upping the yield and potency of the #4.

From a consumer perspective, it’s absolutely gorgeous weed. As grown by Portland-based cannabis manufacturer Devil’s Lettuce, GG5 is all candied blues and greens to the eyes; diesel-soaked leather and burnt rubber to the nose. It’s a fuel-strain lovers perfect pot.

The high is strong and long, centering and sleepy, stoning and blissful. Though this example of GG5 tests at a moderate 21.2% THC, the loud, terpinolene-dominant terpene profile ups the psychoactivity by cloudy leaps.

This tsunami strength translates to a less-social frame of mind, and seems more appropriate for meditation and introspection than hanging out with, well, anyone other than your TV. The reason being: GG5 tends to blunt emotional experiences and general reaction times, favoring a tranquil distance from mental highs and lows—which is great for when you’re alone, but not for when you need to hold down your end of a conversation.

The upside here is that emotional distance can be exactly what a person needs to rationally approach whatever it is that life throws their way.

From a medical perspective, GG5 is most appropriate as a sedative and sleep aid—goodbye, insomnia!—but it doesn’t seem to do much for pain like other heavy indicas of its class.

Compared to GG4, GG5 lacks the happy mental stimulation and sativa head space of its famed parent—opting for a more cohesive high that’s very good at doing one thing: chilling a person out.

All things considered, GG5 is a must-try for fuel lovers and fans of the original GG4, and a great option for anyone looking for stress relief and help getting to bed at night.

Potlander Strain Review: Gorilla Glue #5 by Devil’s Lettuce Strain: Gorilla Glue #5 Parentage: Gorilla Glue #1 x Gorilla Glue #4 Breeder: GG Strains Grower: Devil’s Lettuce

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weed austin tx

weed delivery in Austin, TX

Where to Buy Weed in Austin, TX?

Considering that Austin hasn’t passed medical and recreational marijuana legislation, this would require the state’s legislature to establish medical and recreational cannabis laws, as well as pass laws concerning the cultivation, processing, and sale of hemp. There are numerous places where you can purchase it. However, you can hardly be sure in the quality of your weed. How to protect yourself and find the best price-quality deal without making too much efforts?

Consider marijuana delivery: it is one of the easiest and most convenient ways to get high quality cannabis for a reasonable price. Potlala offers you more than just weed; this online service allows you to select best organic and licensed products with cannabis and to get them delivered discreet to your home or office.

How to Get Weed in Austin?

With Potlala, you can get access to the wide variety of high-grade marijuana products available in Austin, TX. Buy online to save time and avoid troubles!

Important: Potlala does not deliver cannabis products to school, college or university-belonging territories or other public places that have appropriate restrictions.

If it is your first order, you have a chance to get a special 10$ discount! Just use the code AUSTINTXDISCOUNT during your checkout and get a price cut.

Watch Out, There Is Low Quality Weed in Austin!

You cannot be sure in the quality of your cannabis unless you check the results of the independent lab testing. However, there are no licensed manufacturers in Austin at the moment. When you purchase weed from them, you step on the thin ice.

Potlala cooperates with brands that understand that quality is not something that can be compromised, so they are willing to pay for independent tests to gain the customer`s trust. Order delivery from Potlala and stay on the safe side!

In order to become a customer, you only need to be 18 or older. There are no other restrictions except those, which regulate the way you get your cannabis experience: no use in public places, no driving afterwards, and keeping weed away from children and teenagers.

Potlala offers weed delivery in Austin, TX. Order weed online in Austin, TX and get the best cannabis products delivered to you.

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dutch passion seeds usa

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Brexit(31-12-2020)
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We do not ship to the USA!

We do know some of our re-sellers ship world wide. Find them here .


Do you have a problem with ordering?

If possible, add screenshots of the page where the problem started.

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Always state your order number and provide a clear description of the problem. Also try to describe how you proceeded before the problem arose. If possible, add photos of the problem.

Our employees speak English and Dutch.

We use translation programs for the other languages. Use short sentences and punctuation so that we can properly translate your question.

Do you have a complaint or question about an order that was not purchased directly from us?

Then add a proof of purchase. Business customers and media can contact our wholesale department.

We try to respond to your request within 24 hours on working days. Can’t wait 24 hours?

Call us! This is also possible with Skype. Our Skype account has been forwarded to our phone, so you don’t have to pay any calling costs.

Customer service The employees of our customer service are ready for you! For a smooth handling of your question, comment or complaint, we ask you to pay attention to the following:

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amphetamines and marijuana

The Dangers of Mixing Adderall and Weed

  • Adderall
  • cannabis
  • stimulants
  • weed

Adderall is a stimulant drug that excites the central nervous system and is used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy.

In contrast, marijuana or weed is a psychoactive drug with both medicinal and recreational purposes that often gives the user a relaxing sensation. Separately they can be beneficial, but when mixing Adderall and marijuana, there can be cause for concern.

What Happens When You Mix Weed & Adderall?

Although Adderall has viable medical uses, it can also be abused and is addictive. Some people will take the drug without a prescription to improve their focus. Others will simply take it for its euphoric effects. Its misuse can be dangerous regardless of the reason, but some people will go one step further and mix Adderall with weed in a combination sometimes known as weederall.

Those who have experience mixing Adderall and weed sometimes report that the drugs can decrease unwanted effects of the other. Weed, for example, is sometimes said to reduce undesirable emotions related to Adderall like agitation and distress. In contrast, Adderall may help with fatigue or lowered cognitive functioning from marijuana.

Although the two may seem like the perfect combination, mixing a stimulant and a depressant can also come with serious consequences. Because everyone is unique, effects can be unpredictable, and not everyone will experience a harmonious interaction. Alone, long-term abuse of Adderall can lead to arrhythmia, increased blood pressure, and addiction. A prescription drug detox can help addicted users quit, but some of the other health problems may be irreversible. Long-term marijuana abuse can be problematic as well and affect brain development leading to impaired thinking and memory problems. 1

In some cases, mixing Adderall and weed could exacerbate these harmful effects. Because marijuana can initially lead to an increased heart rate and Adderall has the same effect, a person on both drugs may have a racing heart. Over time, this side effect could lead to cardiovascular problems, especially if there is already an underlying heart condition. Another potentially dangerous side effect of mixing weed and Adderall is the increased risk of abuse. Together, the drugs may create a more pleasant and desirable high. This increased euphoria can lead to a strong desire to use again and lead to a faster onset of addiction. Regular users will likely need a medical detox to safely detox off of these substances and stop for good. There is also the potential to overdose on Adderall more easily. Because weed masks some of Adderall’s effects, users may end up taking more of the drug than they realize.

Unnecessary drug interaction of any kind can be dangerous. It is important to always consult a doctor about mixing substances. If you have become addicted to any substances and cannot stop, get help. At Banyan Detox Stuart, our residential drug rehab helps people overcome various substance abuse problems and find lasting sobriety.

Do not be fooled by what you may have heard on the street, mixing Adderall and weed may be dangerous. Here’s what you want to avoid. .

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cupped up outdoors

cupped up outdoors

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Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys Products Available Today Up to 11% Off! — 3 products / 3 models — Page 1

You will appreciate the savings on your purchase of one of the 3 Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys offered at such competitive prices at OpticsPlanet.

Engineered with legendary Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors quality, the Decoys delivers the excellent performance you expect. Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors products far exceed performance expectations and earns high praise in the field.

Enjoy your hobby and achieve your goals with the outstanding performance of Decoys products from OpticsPlanet.

Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys Reviews

There are thousands of product reviews from verified purchasers from OpticsPlanet. You can read all the Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys Reviews here and receive useful information from our network of satisfied customers including product quality, shipping speed, customer service and sometimes even stories of using their Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys.

SAVE on our line of Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys at OpticsPlanet. Low Prices on Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys + Free Shipping on orders over $49!

Cupped Waterfowl Outdoors Decoys Products Available Today Up to 11% Off! — 3 products / 3 models — Page 1 You will appreciate the savings on your purchase

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grow seeds without soil

How to Germinate Seeds Guaranteed Without Soil or Medium for Garden or Hydroponics

Last Updated: March 17, 2020 References

wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 18 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time.

This article has been viewed 87,232 times.

Starting plants from seed is hard. Right soil or medium? The right amount of water? Right nutrients? Right PH balance? Right seeds even? No way! What’s more, seeds won’t sprout until they think the temperature is right. This trick can be done indoors no matter what season it is outside! This method is short, easy and can be done anywhere there is even minor heat. Once you get a sprout, just place it any growing medium!

How to Germinate Seeds Guaranteed Without Soil or Medium for Garden or Hydroponics. Starting plants from seed is hard. Right soil or medium? The right amount of water? Right nutrients? Right PH balance? Right seeds even? No way! What's…

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big bud strains

Big Bud

Big Bud is an indica marijuana strain made from a three-way cross of Afghani, Northern Lights and Skunk #1. Big Bud delivers deeply relaxing effects you can feel from head-to-toe. This strain features an earthy and spicy aroma. Bid Bud has a history of being first developed in the United States before being brought to the Netherlands in the 1980s to survive the war on drugs. Growers say Big Bud produces high yields and massive buds with very few leaves. This strain is best for indoor growing and has a flowering time of 57 days.

Big Bud is an indica marijuana strain made from a three-way cross of Afghani, Northern Lights and Skunk #1. Big Bud delivers deeply relaxing effects you can feel from head-to-toe. This strain features an earthy and spicy aroma. Bid Bud has a history of being first developed in the United States before being brought to the Netherlands in the 1980s to survive the war on drugs. Growers say Big Bud produces high yields and massive buds with very few leaves. This strain is best for indoor growing and has a flowering time of 57 days.

Big Bud is an indica cannabis strain.

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maui wowie marijuana

Maui wowie marijuana

Maui Wowie Strain

Sativa Dominant Hybrid – 80% Sativa / 20% Indica
THC: 20% – 28%

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Just picked up a couple grams from the Trinity dispensary in Peoria Il and its just as good as the stuff I had in California. Perfect for stress and anxiety, nice fruity smell and flavor.

I ‘m growing Maui Wowie and had some Pineapple Kush that became to end uo being a male plant . So, will i have a little of both genetics. 🤔😎

Fruity like blue raz. Reminds me of a grape NOW AND LATER.. Yummy! Great sativa buzz.

Maui Waui is a solid sativa dominant strain. The flavor was the best part, it’s a nice combination of citrus and earthy flavors. The effects were standard sativa mind effects, focused energy and happiness. I just wish the effects were a bit stronger and even more energetic and euphoric. Still it’s a good sativa flower for beginners or people who don’t have a high tolerance. I give it 4 out of 5 in taste and 3 out of 5 in effects.

Maui Wowie, also known as Maui Waui, is a sativa dominant strain, which is mostly found and grown in the Hawaiian Islands. The buds of the strain are covered by wonderful crystals which make it look quite tempting for patients and cannabis users. As for the smell, you will note a hint of pine alo…

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making autoflower seeds

Make Your Own Feminized Autoflower Seeds

JBRONCFAN
Banned

Been reading a lot of threads of people getting their seeds snagged by customs (as I sit here waiting for my order to arrive in the mail). I learned how they make feminized seeds and if you do this with an Autoflower. you never will have to wait for a seed order in the mail again.

You need to purchase colloidal silver. Amazon has it. It’s an old folk remedy. Once you get it, pour it into a spray bottle.

Once you get noticeable, serious buds on your Autoflowers you pick a bud and spray the shit out of it. I’ll have to go back to the webpage and find out exactly how much spray but I believe it’s twice daily. This causes female buds to form a few sacs of pollen. Once they appear mature, take the pollen sacs and pollenate a bud from another Autoflower. Female pollen that pollenates a female bud means the seeds will be all female and since they came from an Autoflower plant they will also be Autoflowering.

That’s the gist of it, the broad strokes. Do some research to learn how to do it properly and NO MORE sweating seeds coming in the mail and no more paying $10/seed.

WEEDOSHI
Banned

Have used this before with success. Do not ingest or smoke any part of the plant that will be used for breeding. colloidal silver is bad for you. (Disregard this, i confused this with another chemical, my apologies.)

This method does work and can save a ton of money. 1 plant can produce something like 50-100 seeds if not more giving you an endless supply of seeds.

Been reading a lot of threads of people getting their seeds snagged by customs (as I sit here waiting for my order to arrive in the mail). I learned how…